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    How to Predict Genetic Gain-Predicting Genetic Gain

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 204 views • 2017-11-21 06:38 • came from similar tags

    The aim of any breeding program is to improve an animal population genetically. In the breeding goal, breeders defined the traits that are important, as well as the direction of change. Usually, the breeder wants to maximize this genetic improvement (called genetic gain or selection response), while minimizing any negative effects. 

    But how can we predict the genetic response and which are the factors that contribute to a higher genetic gain? How can you influence these factors in your breeding program? In the video below, dr. John Bastiaansen teaches you how you can predict the genetic gain in a breeding program!
     



    About Selection Intensity:
     
    In the video, dr. John Bastiaansen explained how genetic gain in a breeding program can be predicted. You will practice the prediction using the formula later on in this module. For now, we would like to focus on and familiarize you with one particular aspect of the formula of genetic gain, which is the selection intensity. 
     

     
     
     
    Selection intensity

    This is what dr. John Bastiaansen explained in his video about the selection intensity: “Now we come to the selection intensity "i". 
    A higher selection intensity means that a smaller percentage of the animals are selected as parents. 
    Here we have a population of pigs that is sorted based on their weight.
    The selection intensity depends on how many candidates you have and how many parents are needed. 
    Selecting only a few parents from the high end of the distribution leads to a big difference in the size of the population.
    If more parents are needed, the difference becomes smaller.
    To predict genetic gain, we need to calculate the superiority of the parents in phenotypic standard deviation units.
    This standardized difference is called the selection intensity, represented by the symbol "i".
    Because "i" is standardized, its value depends only on the percentage of animals that is selected.
    This is convenient because we can now define "i" independently of the trait that is being selected.
    Values of "i" are published in tables like this one here. 
    In one column, we look up the percentage of animals that is selected, for instance 10%. 
    In the next column, we find the value for i, which is the superiority of the top 10% in standard deviation units, 1.76.

     
    You can check this for yourself in the table above, which contains a part of the total table. 
     
     
    subtitle:

    By selecting the best candidates as parents to produce the next generation, you can improve the genetic level of a population.
    This change is called genetic gain.
    How much genetic gain we can get, depends on the proportion of the animals that is selected as parents.
    It also depends on how accurately you have ranked the animals, and how much genetic variance there is for the trait.
    This is the formula for predicting the genetic gain, or delta G.
    Delta G tells us how much better the population gets each year.
    To calculate genetic gain you multiply the selection intensity i, the accuracy of selection r<sub>IH</sub>,
    and the genetic standard deviation sigma A.
    Then you divide by the generation interval L.
    Let us look at the four parameters in this equation one by one.
    We start with a parameter we already know, the accuracy or "r<sub>IH</sub>".
    This accuracy tells us how close the estimated breeding values resemble the true breeding values.
    In the figure on the right, the estimates are closer to the true values, therefore the accuracy is higher.
    Higher accuracy leads to higher genetic gain.
    Another familiar parameter is sigma A, the additive genetic standard deviation.
    When the genetic standard deviation is larger, the best animals are further away from the mean.
    This also leads to higher genetic gain.
    Now we come to the selection intensity "i".
    A higher selection intensity means that a smaller percentage of the animals are selected as parents.
    Here we have a population of pigs that is sorted based on their weight.
    The selection intensity depends on how many candidates you have and how many parents are needed.
    Selecting only a few parents from the high end of the distribution leads to a big difference in size with the population.
    When more parents are needed, the difference becomes smaller.
    To predict genetic gain, we need to calculate the superiority of the parents in phenotypic standard deviation units.
    This standardized difference is called the selection intensity, represented by the symbol "i".
    Because "i" is standardized, its value depends only on the percentage of animals that is selected.
    This is convenient because we can now define "i" independent of the trait that is being selected.
    Values of "i" are published in tables like this one here.
    In one column we look up the percentage of animals that is selected, for instance 10%.
    In the next column we find the value for i, which is the superiority of the top 10% in standard deviation units, 1.76.
    When we multiply i, r<sub>IH</sub>, and sigma A we predict the genetic gain per generation.
    To present the genetic gain as the improvement per year we divide by the generation interval "L".
    L is the average age of selected parents when their offspring are born.
    The generation interval varies a lot between species, and can also change depending on how you design your breeding program.
    With these four parameters we have a general equation that predicts the genetic gain per year,
    based on the selection intensity, the accuracy, the genetic standard deviation, and the generation interval.
     
      view all
    The aim of any breeding program is to improve an animal population genetically. In the breeding goal, breeders defined the traits that are important, as well as the direction of change. Usually, the breeder wants to maximize this genetic improvement (called genetic gain or selection response), while minimizing any negative effects. 

    But how can we predict the genetic response and which are the factors that contribute to a higher genetic gain? How can you influence these factors in your breeding program? In the video below, dr. John Bastiaansen teaches you how you can predict the genetic gain in a breeding program!
     




    About Selection Intensity:
     
    In the video, dr. John Bastiaansen explained how genetic gain in a breeding program can be predicted. You will practice the prediction using the formula later on in this module. For now, we would like to focus on and familiarize you with one particular aspect of the formula of genetic gain, which is the selection intensity. 
     

     
     
     
    Selection intensity

    This is what dr. John Bastiaansen explained in his video about the selection intensity: “Now we come to the selection intensity "i". 
    A higher selection intensity means that a smaller percentage of the animals are selected as parents. 
    Here we have a population of pigs that is sorted based on their weight.
    The selection intensity depends on how many candidates you have and how many parents are needed. 
    Selecting only a few parents from the high end of the distribution leads to a big difference in the size of the population.
    If more parents are needed, the difference becomes smaller.
    To predict genetic gain, we need to calculate the superiority of the parents in phenotypic standard deviation units.
    This standardized difference is called the selection intensity, represented by the symbol "i".
    Because "i" is standardized, its value depends only on the percentage of animals that is selected.
    This is convenient because we can now define "i" independently of the trait that is being selected.
    Values of "i" are published in tables like this one here. 
    In one column, we look up the percentage of animals that is selected, for instance 10%. 
    In the next column, we find the value for i, which is the superiority of the top 10% in standard deviation units, 1.76.

     
    You can check this for yourself in the table above, which contains a part of the total table. 
     
     
    subtitle:

    By selecting the best candidates as parents to produce the next generation, you can improve the genetic level of a population.
    This change is called genetic gain.
    How much genetic gain we can get, depends on the proportion of the animals that is selected as parents.
    It also depends on how accurately you have ranked the animals, and how much genetic variance there is for the trait.
    This is the formula for predicting the genetic gain, or delta G.
    Delta G tells us how much better the population gets each year.
    To calculate genetic gain you multiply the selection intensity i, the accuracy of selection r<sub>IH</sub>,
    and the genetic standard deviation sigma A.
    Then you divide by the generation interval L.
    Let us look at the four parameters in this equation one by one.
    We start with a parameter we already know, the accuracy or "r<sub>IH</sub>".
    This accuracy tells us how close the estimated breeding values resemble the true breeding values.
    In the figure on the right, the estimates are closer to the true values, therefore the accuracy is higher.
    Higher accuracy leads to higher genetic gain.
    Another familiar parameter is sigma A, the additive genetic standard deviation.
    When the genetic standard deviation is larger, the best animals are further away from the mean.
    This also leads to higher genetic gain.
    Now we come to the selection intensity "i".
    A higher selection intensity means that a smaller percentage of the animals are selected as parents.
    Here we have a population of pigs that is sorted based on their weight.
    The selection intensity depends on how many candidates you have and how many parents are needed.
    Selecting only a few parents from the high end of the distribution leads to a big difference in size with the population.
    When more parents are needed, the difference becomes smaller.
    To predict genetic gain, we need to calculate the superiority of the parents in phenotypic standard deviation units.
    This standardized difference is called the selection intensity, represented by the symbol "i".
    Because "i" is standardized, its value depends only on the percentage of animals that is selected.
    This is convenient because we can now define "i" independent of the trait that is being selected.
    Values of "i" are published in tables like this one here.
    In one column we look up the percentage of animals that is selected, for instance 10%.
    In the next column we find the value for i, which is the superiority of the top 10% in standard deviation units, 1.76.
    When we multiply i, r<sub>IH</sub>, and sigma A we predict the genetic gain per generation.
    To present the genetic gain as the improvement per year we divide by the generation interval "L".
    L is the average age of selected parents when their offspring are born.
    The generation interval varies a lot between species, and can also change depending on how you design your breeding program.
    With these four parameters we have a general equation that predicts the genetic gain per year,
    based on the selection intensity, the accuracy, the genetic standard deviation, and the generation interval.
     
     
    103
    Views

    Module 6: Response to Selection > 6.1 Introduction > Welcome to Response to Selection!

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 103 views • 2017-11-21 06:38 • came from similar tags

    Welcome to Module 6 on Response to Selection! Now that you have learnt how you can rank the animals in your population, to decide which ones to choose to produce the next generation, it is time to proceed to the next step in the breeding program. 

    Imagine a horse owner wants to breed faster racing horses, or a dog breeder wants to reduce inbreeding in the dog population, or maybe there is a chicken farmer who formulates a breeding goal to increasing the amount of eggs in laying hens. Imagine that they have just finished ranking their animals based on the estimated breeding values and are about to start producing the next generation. Of course, they are curious what they can expect in the next generation. How much faster than their parents will the new generation of racing horses be? How much can inbreeding be reduced in one generation? How many more eggs will the new generation of chickens be able to produce? Or, in other words, how can we predict the genetic gain that can be achieved? What will the selection response be?

    In this Module 6 you will learn how to answer these questions!

    Set-up of module 6

    In this module, we teach you about response to selection. You will learn:

    6.2 How to predict genetic gain

    Which information do you need to be able to predict genetic gain and why?

    6.3 Calculating response to selection

    Here, you will be introduced to the formula to calculate response to selection or genetic gain yourself!

    6.4 Trade-offs in predicting gain

    Which choices influence the amount of genetic gain? How do they interact?

    6.5 The effect of mating

    Genetic gain is influenced not only by the selection of a ‘pool’ of parents, but also by the combinations of parents that are made. You will learn more about this in the section on mating. 

    6.6 Long term genetic contributions

    Is it wise to use the very best bull to mate with all cows of one generation? Why or why not?

    6.7 Your own breeding program

    Apply what you learnt in this module to your own breeding program with your animal species of choice! 

    6.8 Module exam

    Test your knowledge on module 6!

     
     
    Image: Breeding program. The red circle shows the step on “Predicting selection response” that module 6 is about. 
     
     
     
      view all
    Welcome to Module 6 on Response to Selection! Now that you have learnt how you can rank the animals in your population, to decide which ones to choose to produce the next generation, it is time to proceed to the next step in the breeding program. 

    Imagine a horse owner wants to breed faster racing horses, or a dog breeder wants to reduce inbreeding in the dog population, or maybe there is a chicken farmer who formulates a breeding goal to increasing the amount of eggs in laying hens. Imagine that they have just finished ranking their animals based on the estimated breeding values and are about to start producing the next generation. Of course, they are curious what they can expect in the next generation. How much faster than their parents will the new generation of racing horses be? How much can inbreeding be reduced in one generation? How many more eggs will the new generation of chickens be able to produce? Or, in other words, how can we predict the genetic gain that can be achieved? What will the selection response be?

    In this Module 6 you will learn how to answer these questions!

    Set-up of module 6

    In this module, we teach you about response to selection. You will learn:

    6.2 How to predict genetic gain

    Which information do you need to be able to predict genetic gain and why?

    6.3 Calculating response to selection

    Here, you will be introduced to the formula to calculate response to selection or genetic gain yourself!

    6.4 Trade-offs in predicting gain

    Which choices influence the amount of genetic gain? How do they interact?

    6.5 The effect of mating

    Genetic gain is influenced not only by the selection of a ‘pool’ of parents, but also by the combinations of parents that are made. You will learn more about this in the section on mating. 

    6.6 Long term genetic contributions

    Is it wise to use the very best bull to mate with all cows of one generation? Why or why not?

    6.7 Your own breeding program

    Apply what you learnt in this module to your own breeding program with your animal species of choice! 

    6.8 Module exam

    Test your knowledge on module 6!

     
     
    Image: Breeding program. The red circle shows the step on “Predicting selection response” that module 6 is about. 
     
     
     
     
    101
    Views

    What Have We Learned-Module 7: Animal Breeding in Practice

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 101 views • 2017-11-21 06:30 • came from similar tags

    In this video we will look back at the different steps of designing a breeding program and highlight what we learned about animal breeding along the way. During the design of your own breeding program you will have encountered a number of questions. For many of these questions you had to make a decision. These decisions should now be based on the animal breeding principles you learned in the different modules.
     
     

     
     
    subtitle:
     
    In the first module we gave you an introduction to animal breeding.
    You learnt that there are 7 steps in setting up a breeding program.
    All steps are important and you need to pay attention to all of them.
    Try to memorize them!
    After completing this module you should:
    Understand the history of animal breeding.
    Have an idea why animal breeding is performed.
    and what we mean by “balanced breeding”.
    You should also be able to describe the seven steps to set up a breeding program
    In module two you learned about the breeding goal.
    The breeding goal is a list of traits with breeding values that you want to improve.
    The breeding goal should include all traits of importance,
    irrespective of their heritability.
    Each trait has a weight
    that reflects its importance in the production system and the desired direction of change.
    Traits can be weighted by economic values or “desired gains” weights.
    After completing this module you are able to describe
    the six characteristics of a breeding goal
    and to Derive economic values for traits in a breeding goal in simple examples.
    Module 3 was about collection of information
    and the importance of family relationships.
    Collection of information is vital to a breeding program.
    There are two types of information:
    phenotypes and family relationships.
    Family relationships between animals are very important
    and can be used to quantify additive genetic relationships and inbreeding.
    Controlling inbreeding is important when relationships are used for breeding value estimation,
    because related animals tend to have similar breeding values.
    In this module you learned how to calculate inbreeding
    and interpret these values and their consequences.
    Now that you have completed this module
    you are able to understand the concept of inbreeding.
    And you are also able to Describe the consequences of inbreeding.
    Furthermore, you can calculate additive genetic relationships
    and inbreeding coefficients of animals based on a simple pedigree.
    In module 4 we introduced the genetic models that we use to estimate breeding values.
    Genetic models allow you to distinguish between genetic and non-genetic influences on phenotypes.
    The parameters to describe the relative influence of these factors are heritability, repeatability
    and common environmental effects.
    Genetic models are the tools to rank the animals,
    so that we can select the best.
    This is a very important activity in breeding programs.
    After completion of this module you will now know and understand:
    the two most important genetic models: the transmission model
    and the Mendelian sampling model.
    You should also know what the following parameters mean:
    heritability, repeatability and common environment ratio.
    In module 5, we showed you how you can estimate breeding values.
    You learned the skills and tools to estimate breeding values
    and calculate accuracies in simple situations.
    Then you made estimates in some more complex situations
    where information is coming from multiple sources.
    The important thing here is to know how to interpret the accuracies of the breeding values
    and how to use these in making selection decisions.
    At the end of the module,
    you can estimate breeding values and predicted performance in simple situations,
    and also calculate accuracy of the  breeding values.
    Furthermore you can describe how phenotypes of animals from different farms can be used in breeding value estimation (BLUP)
    In module 6 we introduced the so-called breeders equation to calculate the response to selection.
    After ranking the animals you make selection decisions.
    Different decisions lead to different outcomes in genetic improvement.
    The breeders equation shows how intensity of selection,
    accuracy, genetic variance of a trait, and the generation interval interact.
    By using the breeders equation, you are able to predict the outcomes of different options
    and to evaluate the trade-offs between the factors that influence genetic gain.
    After completion of this module,
    you are now able to calculate response to selection in simplified breeding schemes.
    And to understand and describe the consequences of trade-offs between selection intensity,
    accuracy and generation interval.
    Module 7 was about animal breeding in practice.
    Ownership of animals and reproductive capacity
    are the main drivers of the design of breeding programs
    and the dissemination of genetic improvement.
    Breeding programs for chickens to grow meat globally
    or chickens for local production systems can be different,
    but the steps to design the breeding program are the same.
    In module 7 we presented a practical example of a breeding program for chicken in Ethiopia.
    Study the example carefully and you will see that we use the same principles taught in this course.
    At the end of this module you should know the key factors that affect the structure of a breeding program.
    And understand that breeding programs can have different structures. view all
    In this video we will look back at the different steps of designing a breeding program and highlight what we learned about animal breeding along the way. During the design of your own breeding program you will have encountered a number of questions. For many of these questions you had to make a decision. These decisions should now be based on the animal breeding principles you learned in the different modules.
     
     


     
     
    subtitle:
     
    In the first module we gave you an introduction to animal breeding.
    You learnt that there are 7 steps in setting up a breeding program.
    All steps are important and you need to pay attention to all of them.
    Try to memorize them!
    After completing this module you should:
    Understand the history of animal breeding.
    Have an idea why animal breeding is performed.
    and what we mean by “balanced breeding”.
    You should also be able to describe the seven steps to set up a breeding program
    In module two you learned about the breeding goal.
    The breeding goal is a list of traits with breeding values that you want to improve.
    The breeding goal should include all traits of importance,
    irrespective of their heritability.
    Each trait has a weight
    that reflects its importance in the production system and the desired direction of change.
    Traits can be weighted by economic values or “desired gains” weights.
    After completing this module you are able to describe
    the six characteristics of a breeding goal
    and to Derive economic values for traits in a breeding goal in simple examples.
    Module 3 was about collection of information
    and the importance of family relationships.
    Collection of information is vital to a breeding program.
    There are two types of information:
    phenotypes and family relationships.
    Family relationships between animals are very important
    and can be used to quantify additive genetic relationships and inbreeding.
    Controlling inbreeding is important when relationships are used for breeding value estimation,
    because related animals tend to have similar breeding values.
    In this module you learned how to calculate inbreeding
    and interpret these values and their consequences.
    Now that you have completed this module
    you are able to understand the concept of inbreeding.
    And you are also able to Describe the consequences of inbreeding.
    Furthermore, you can calculate additive genetic relationships
    and inbreeding coefficients of animals based on a simple pedigree.
    In module 4 we introduced the genetic models that we use to estimate breeding values.
    Genetic models allow you to distinguish between genetic and non-genetic influences on phenotypes.
    The parameters to describe the relative influence of these factors are heritability, repeatability
    and common environmental effects.
    Genetic models are the tools to rank the animals,
    so that we can select the best.
    This is a very important activity in breeding programs.
    After completion of this module you will now know and understand:
    the two most important genetic models: the transmission model
    and the Mendelian sampling model.
    You should also know what the following parameters mean:
    heritability, repeatability and common environment ratio.
    In module 5, we showed you how you can estimate breeding values.
    You learned the skills and tools to estimate breeding values
    and calculate accuracies in simple situations.
    Then you made estimates in some more complex situations
    where information is coming from multiple sources.
    The important thing here is to know how to interpret the accuracies of the breeding values
    and how to use these in making selection decisions.
    At the end of the module,
    you can estimate breeding values and predicted performance in simple situations,
    and also calculate accuracy of the  breeding values.
    Furthermore you can describe how phenotypes of animals from different farms can be used in breeding value estimation (BLUP)
    In module 6 we introduced the so-called breeders equation to calculate the response to selection.
    After ranking the animals you make selection decisions.
    Different decisions lead to different outcomes in genetic improvement.
    The breeders equation shows how intensity of selection,
    accuracy, genetic variance of a trait, and the generation interval interact.
    By using the breeders equation, you are able to predict the outcomes of different options
    and to evaluate the trade-offs between the factors that influence genetic gain.
    After completion of this module,
    you are now able to calculate response to selection in simplified breeding schemes.
    And to understand and describe the consequences of trade-offs between selection intensity,
    accuracy and generation interval.
    Module 7 was about animal breeding in practice.
    Ownership of animals and reproductive capacity
    are the main drivers of the design of breeding programs
    and the dissemination of genetic improvement.
    Breeding programs for chickens to grow meat globally
    or chickens for local production systems can be different,
    but the steps to design the breeding program are the same.
    In module 7 we presented a practical example of a breeding program for chicken in Ethiopia.
    Study the example carefully and you will see that we use the same principles taught in this course.
    At the end of this module you should know the key factors that affect the structure of a breeding program.
    And understand that breeding programs can have different structures.
    107
    Views

    Module 7: Animal Breeding in Practice

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 107 views • 2017-11-21 06:25 • came from similar tags

    Welcome to the last module, in which we will look at animal breeding in practice. In the previous parts of the course, you learned about the tools and theory needed to design a breeding program. An important consideration in setting up a breeding program is how you are going to provide farmers with the genetically-improved animals. This is where you need to combine the biological features of your species and the needs of the owners of the animals. The structure of breeding programs can differ substantially between animal species and sometimes also between breeds. The reproductive rate is very different between species and this has an impact on what is possible when designing a program. Also, the ownership of animals can be different. In some species, the breeding animals are owned by the breeder. But in other species they are privately owned and the breeding organization can only give breeding advice while the owners decide. 

    Breeding programs differ enormously in the number of genetically-improved animals they need to provide. For instance, the number of chickens or pigs that are kept for producing eggs and meat worldwide is very high. To disseminate the genetic progress of a breeding program in pigs and chickens to all these farmers requires a multiplication structure. In dairy cattle, the number of cows is also high, but one bull can produce a large number of semen doses to inseminate many cows therefore multiplication is not needed. On the other hand, some breeding programs serve a small population. You can think of more rare cattle, goat or sheep breeds that are only kept locally or breeds of companion animals that are kept by a small number of owners. 

    Setup of module 7

    In this module, you will find the following topics:

    7.2 The structure of breeding programs

    What are the important factors and how do they affect the structure of a breeding program?

    7.3 A global breeding program

    Here the breeding structure for a large cattle breed, Holstein Frisian, is introduced as an example of a breeding program that serves farmers worldwide.

    7.4 A local breeding program

    What is important when breeding for local conditions? We see the example of breeding for village chicken production in Ethiopia.  

    7.5 Wrap-up: What have we learned in this course 

    We will have a look back at the course and highlight what we have learned. We will look at some examples from the discussion forum and connect them to the genetic principles taught along this course. 

    7.6 Your own breeding program

    Reflect on the breeding program you designed during this course. Does it resemble one of the examples of existing breeding programs presented in this module? 

    7.7 Module exam

    Test your knowledge on module 7.
      view all
    Welcome to the last module, in which we will look at animal breeding in practice. In the previous parts of the course, you learned about the tools and theory needed to design a breeding program. An important consideration in setting up a breeding program is how you are going to provide farmers with the genetically-improved animals. This is where you need to combine the biological features of your species and the needs of the owners of the animals. The structure of breeding programs can differ substantially between animal species and sometimes also between breeds. The reproductive rate is very different between species and this has an impact on what is possible when designing a program. Also, the ownership of animals can be different. In some species, the breeding animals are owned by the breeder. But in other species they are privately owned and the breeding organization can only give breeding advice while the owners decide. 

    Breeding programs differ enormously in the number of genetically-improved animals they need to provide. For instance, the number of chickens or pigs that are kept for producing eggs and meat worldwide is very high. To disseminate the genetic progress of a breeding program in pigs and chickens to all these farmers requires a multiplication structure. In dairy cattle, the number of cows is also high, but one bull can produce a large number of semen doses to inseminate many cows therefore multiplication is not needed. On the other hand, some breeding programs serve a small population. You can think of more rare cattle, goat or sheep breeds that are only kept locally or breeds of companion animals that are kept by a small number of owners. 

    Setup of module 7

    In this module, you will find the following topics:

    7.2 The structure of breeding programs

    What are the important factors and how do they affect the structure of a breeding program?

    7.3 A global breeding program

    Here the breeding structure for a large cattle breed, Holstein Frisian, is introduced as an example of a breeding program that serves farmers worldwide.

    7.4 A local breeding program

    What is important when breeding for local conditions? We see the example of breeding for village chicken production in Ethiopia.  

    7.5 Wrap-up: What have we learned in this course 

    We will have a look back at the course and highlight what we have learned. We will look at some examples from the discussion forum and connect them to the genetic principles taught along this course. 

    7.6 Your own breeding program

    Reflect on the breeding program you designed during this course. Does it resemble one of the examples of existing breeding programs presented in this module? 

    7.7 Module exam

    Test your knowledge on module 7.
     
    97
    Views

    Factors that Influence the Structure

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 97 views • 2017-11-21 06:25 • came from similar tags

    The structure of breeding programs differs substantially between animal species. An important reason is the differences that exist in reproductive rate. Sows and hens can produce many more offspring than cows and mares, and some fish species can produce even more. Another important reason is the ownership of the animals which may even be different for the males and females of certain species.

    Reproductive rate

    Reproductive rates range from one offspring every few years to many thousands of offspring per year or even per month. In addition, the rate often differs between males and females. Males often have higher reproductive rates than females. This leads some programs to focus more on selection in males. The number of males needed is smaller which leads to higher selection intensities. An added advantage is that with fewer animals, the cost of keeping the breeding stock becomes smaller. 

    Sometimes the biological reproduction rates can be enhanced by technological interventions. In dairy cattle breeding, artificial reproduction techniques such as artificial insemination (AI) and in vitro fertilization, in combination with embryo implantation, are well-developed and widely used in the breeding population. This provides the opportunity to produce large numbers of offspring from superior sires and dams, and disseminate the genes of these superior animals widely in the production population.

    Ownership of breeding animals

    In animal species that are kept for companionship or leisure purposes, control over the breeding program by the breed associations is very loose because the animals are owned by private owners. These private owners each decide individually on the breeding of their animals. In some species, like the major dairy cattle breeds, the males are owned by a breeding company or a group of breeders, and the females are privately owned. In both cases the breeding company or association depends on the breeding decisions of the private owners. Breeders can only completely control the breeding decisions when they own both the males and females in the breeding program.  view all
    The structure of breeding programs differs substantially between animal species. An important reason is the differences that exist in reproductive rate. Sows and hens can produce many more offspring than cows and mares, and some fish species can produce even more. Another important reason is the ownership of the animals which may even be different for the males and females of certain species.

    Reproductive rate

    Reproductive rates range from one offspring every few years to many thousands of offspring per year or even per month. In addition, the rate often differs between males and females. Males often have higher reproductive rates than females. This leads some programs to focus more on selection in males. The number of males needed is smaller which leads to higher selection intensities. An added advantage is that with fewer animals, the cost of keeping the breeding stock becomes smaller. 

    Sometimes the biological reproduction rates can be enhanced by technological interventions. In dairy cattle breeding, artificial reproduction techniques such as artificial insemination (AI) and in vitro fertilization, in combination with embryo implantation, are well-developed and widely used in the breeding population. This provides the opportunity to produce large numbers of offspring from superior sires and dams, and disseminate the genes of these superior animals widely in the production population.

    Ownership of breeding animals

    In animal species that are kept for companionship or leisure purposes, control over the breeding program by the breed associations is very loose because the animals are owned by private owners. These private owners each decide individually on the breeding of their animals. In some species, like the major dairy cattle breeds, the males are owned by a breeding company or a group of breeders, and the females are privately owned. In both cases the breeding company or association depends on the breeding decisions of the private owners. Breeders can only completely control the breeding decisions when they own both the males and females in the breeding program. 
    95
    Views

    Structures of Breeding Programs

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 95 views • 2017-11-21 06:25 • came from similar tags

    The difference in reproductive rate and in ownership of animals leads to different structures of breeding programs. Here we present 3 different structures that are often found in animal breeding.

    A flat structure
    An open nucleus structure
    A closed nucleus 

    A flat breeding structure

    In breeding programs with a flat structure, nearly all animals can potentially participate in breeding. In most cases, the breed association only has a strong vote in the selection of the males for breeding. Results of shows where animals are judged largely determine which males are used. This often results in a few “champion” males that are very widely used as sires in the whole population. This type of selection takes place in most breeds of dogs, sheep, and horses. All of these species tend to only perform directional selection in the males, where in some breeds the males are selected using more information than in others. 

    An open nucleus structure

    When the breeder owns both the males and at least a limited number of females, the structure becomes a nucleus. Selection among the females, and the males, is under the control of the breeder. Privately owned animals (usually females) can be invited to become part of the nucleus, which is why it is called an open nucleus. The best examples of open nucleus structures are the breeding programs for dairy cattle.

    A closed nucleus structure

    In the main breeding programs for pig and poultry production (pork, eggs and broiler meat), the commercial breeding companies have full control over all breeding activities. They own a limited number of breeding animals (i.e. their selection lines). In these lines, the companies determine the breeding goal, organize the data collection and the breeding value estimation, and decide which animals are selected and mated to produce a new generation. These pure line animals are not the ones that produce the final product: animals producing the meat or eggs for the market. The final product often consists of a cross between three or four different lines. After the breeding program is established, no new animals are introduced in the program. The mostly globally-operating breeding companies have different selection lines. These selection lines are separate breeding populations. To produce animals to lay eggs or to grow meat, contracted farmers multiply and cross the selection lines in a pyramidal structure.
     
     

     
     
    Image: Pyramidal structure of a breeding program where selective breeding occurs in the top and farmers are supplied animals via multiplication steps in the middle of the pyramid.
     
     
      view all
    The difference in reproductive rate and in ownership of animals leads to different structures of breeding programs. Here we present 3 different structures that are often found in animal breeding.

    A flat structure
    An open nucleus structure
    A closed nucleus 

    A flat breeding structure

    In breeding programs with a flat structure, nearly all animals can potentially participate in breeding. In most cases, the breed association only has a strong vote in the selection of the males for breeding. Results of shows where animals are judged largely determine which males are used. This often results in a few “champion” males that are very widely used as sires in the whole population. This type of selection takes place in most breeds of dogs, sheep, and horses. All of these species tend to only perform directional selection in the males, where in some breeds the males are selected using more information than in others. 

    An open nucleus structure

    When the breeder owns both the males and at least a limited number of females, the structure becomes a nucleus. Selection among the females, and the males, is under the control of the breeder. Privately owned animals (usually females) can be invited to become part of the nucleus, which is why it is called an open nucleus. The best examples of open nucleus structures are the breeding programs for dairy cattle.

    A closed nucleus structure

    In the main breeding programs for pig and poultry production (pork, eggs and broiler meat), the commercial breeding companies have full control over all breeding activities. They own a limited number of breeding animals (i.e. their selection lines). In these lines, the companies determine the breeding goal, organize the data collection and the breeding value estimation, and decide which animals are selected and mated to produce a new generation. These pure line animals are not the ones that produce the final product: animals producing the meat or eggs for the market. The final product often consists of a cross between three or four different lines. After the breeding program is established, no new animals are introduced in the program. The mostly globally-operating breeding companies have different selection lines. These selection lines are separate breeding populations. To produce animals to lay eggs or to grow meat, contracted farmers multiply and cross the selection lines in a pyramidal structure.
     
     

     
     
    Image: Pyramidal structure of a breeding program where selective breeding occurs in the top and farmers are supplied animals via multiplication steps in the middle of the pyramid.
     
     
     
    143
    Views

    The Example of Broiler Chickens

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 143 views • 2017-11-21 06:25 • came from similar tags

    In commercial pigs, poultry, and fish programs, selection takes place in the top of the breeding program. Especially in pigs and chicken, and sometimes in fish, a few “multiplying generations” are needed to disseminate the selection response obtained in the top of the structure to the production animals. The (small) breeding population in the nucleus, the generations needed to increase the number of animals with improved genetic values, and the (large) production population is often depicted in the form of a pyramid. The figure below shows the structure of a poultry (broiler) breeding program. This pyramid has some more detail than the one in the previous section, but the general idea is the same. 

    Within the commercial breeding scheme for broilers the selection response is realized in specialized lines. Usually a four-way cross is applied to produce the final broilers that are grown for their meat. Two lines are selected for fertility and egg quality (the “female” lines) and two lines for growth traits (the “male” lines). In the broiler structure the selection takes place at the top of the pyramid in the pure lines, resulting in a limited number of genetically superior animals. These superior animals are used in the pyramid as Great Grandparents. When the selected Great Grandparents are multiplied in sufficient numbers, they produce Grand-parents (see table 2). These Grand-parents are then crossed with grandparents from another line. The Grand-parent crosses result in F1 animals that are called Parents. These Parents are then mated to a F1 parent from cross between two other lines to produce the broilers. The pure line and the F1 animals (Parents) are often owned by the breeding company to protect the characteristics of their lines and the realized genetic improvement in these lines. 

    In table 1, an example is given of the number of broilers that can be produced from 1 single hen in the nucleus. This pyramid involves 5 tiers. Taking all tiers together, one hen in the nucleus can have 2,880,000 descendants as broilers in the commercial tier. Parents in each tier are used for one year. This means that the genetic merit of the nucleus animals is expressed in the great grand-parent stock after one year, in the grand parent stock after two years and reaches 2,880,000 broilers after 5 years.

    Table 1: Example of pyramidal structure for the dam lines of broilers involving 5 tiers and the number of offspring in each tier that descend from one hen in the nucleus.
      view all
    In commercial pigs, poultry, and fish programs, selection takes place in the top of the breeding program. Especially in pigs and chicken, and sometimes in fish, a few “multiplying generations” are needed to disseminate the selection response obtained in the top of the structure to the production animals. The (small) breeding population in the nucleus, the generations needed to increase the number of animals with improved genetic values, and the (large) production population is often depicted in the form of a pyramid. The figure below shows the structure of a poultry (broiler) breeding program. This pyramid has some more detail than the one in the previous section, but the general idea is the same. 

    Within the commercial breeding scheme for broilers the selection response is realized in specialized lines. Usually a four-way cross is applied to produce the final broilers that are grown for their meat. Two lines are selected for fertility and egg quality (the “female” lines) and two lines for growth traits (the “male” lines). In the broiler structure the selection takes place at the top of the pyramid in the pure lines, resulting in a limited number of genetically superior animals. These superior animals are used in the pyramid as Great Grandparents. When the selected Great Grandparents are multiplied in sufficient numbers, they produce Grand-parents (see table 2). These Grand-parents are then crossed with grandparents from another line. The Grand-parent crosses result in F1 animals that are called Parents. These Parents are then mated to a F1 parent from cross between two other lines to produce the broilers. The pure line and the F1 animals (Parents) are often owned by the breeding company to protect the characteristics of their lines and the realized genetic improvement in these lines. 

    In table 1, an example is given of the number of broilers that can be produced from 1 single hen in the nucleus. This pyramid involves 5 tiers. Taking all tiers together, one hen in the nucleus can have 2,880,000 descendants as broilers in the commercial tier. Parents in each tier are used for one year. This means that the genetic merit of the nucleus animals is expressed in the great grand-parent stock after one year, in the grand parent stock after two years and reaches 2,880,000 broilers after 5 years.

    Table 1: Example of pyramidal structure for the dam lines of broilers involving 5 tiers and the number of offspring in each tier that descend from one hen in the nucleus.
     
    112
    Views

    The Horro Breeding Program

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 112 views • 2017-11-21 06:25 • came from similar tags

     In the next 12 minutes, Dr. Tadelle Dessie will explain the history of this breeding program and why it is needed. He explains how all the steps of breeding program design were followed in developing this program. After the clip, you will answer a few questions about the structure of the Horro breeding program and why it was developed in the way explained in the clip. 
     
     



    subtitle:
     
     
    In this clip, we will show what a real breeding program for chickens looks like.
    We will take you through the design step-by-step and explain in each step which choices were made, and why.
    After seeing this clip,
    you should have a good idea of the resources needed to set up and carry out a breeding program in practice.
    In many developing countries, poultry offers poor people a pathway out of poverty.
    A joint project was developed and implemented by Ethiopian Institute of Agriculture Research,
    International Livestock Research Institute, and Wageningen University and Research.
    The project was funded by the Koepon Foundation.
    The aim was to improve the productivity of the village poultry production system in Ethiopia.
    The breeding program was established in 2008 and focused on Horro chicken.
    Horro is an indigenous chicken type named after the geographic region of
    origin, located in the western part of Ethiopia near the Blue Nile gorge.
    The population is highly diverse, both genetically as well as phenotypically.
    The aim of the program was to make Horro chickens more profitable for the poor people in those regions
    and to conserve the existing genetic diversity.
    The program started with a survey to understand the production system and needs,
    and constraints of smallholder chicken farmers in Ethiopia.
    A total of 225 households were interviewed.
    We wanted to understand the socio-economic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions,
    and to understand the important functions of chickens in their households.
    The questionnaire was also designed to collect general information on village poultry production, such as:
    production objectives and goals, flock structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits,
    and farmers' selection criteria and practices.
    We found that most smallholder production systems maintained birds under scavenging regimens
    in the backyards with little or no supplemental feeding,
    no health care and very high mortality.
    The main purpose of keeping chickens was the sale of eggs and live animals,
    and the occasional slaughter of animals for home consumption.
    The results of this study in Ethiopia showed that farmers across all geographic regions
    rated growth and egg production as the traits they wanted to be improved the most.
    The results from the survey were used to define the breeding goal "traits" and their relative importance in the production environment.
    Production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions,
    followed by source of income from sales of eggs and live animals and meat for home consumption.
    The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight,
    but farmers rated growth of males and number of eggs followed by growth of females as traits they would like to see improved.
    Therefore, the breeding goal was to develop a productive breed based on indigenous chicken genetic resources
    that can survive and reproduce in the production environment of village farmers.
    The breeding goal traits were increased egg production (number),
    increased body weight, decreased age at first egg and increased survival.
    The study was done at the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.
    The base population was established from 3,000 eggs purchased from various locations
    in the Horro region, in Ethiopia.
    Twenty sires (male chickens) and 260 dams (female chickens) were successfully hatched and raised.
    After 18 weeks of age, a total of 240 females and 24 males were picked randomly and transferred to layer houses.
    There they were kept in groups of 1 male with 10 females in separate pens.
    Each pen had a trap nest for individual recording of egg production and pedigree.
    Since the breeding program aimed at increasing body weight as well as at increasing egg production,
    collection of information was done accordingly.
    Phenotypic traits recorded were body weights at hatch and on weeks 2, 6, 8, 12 and 16, for males and females.
    Age at first egg was recorded for each hen and egg production was recorded every month until 44 weeks of age.
    The cumulative monthly egg production records were used for analysis.
    Mortality was recorded when it happened.
    The breeding program was started before parameter estimates for preferred traits were available.
    As a result, selection was based on individual performance,
    called "own performance" or "mass selection", until the 8th generation.
    In the 8th generation, genetic parameters of growth
    and egg production traits were estimated using genetic models implemented in statistical software.
    Heritability for body weight at 16 weeks was 0.37, and for cumulative egg number it was 0.32.
    These heritabilities correspond to an accuracy of 0.56 and 0.49 respectively
    when using mass selection.
    In 2017, the breeding program was in generation 9
    and genetic parameters have been estimated based on full pedigree of 8 generations.
    From now on, selection will be based on estimated breeding values rather than on mass selection.
    The estimated breeding value indicates the value of the animal with respect to the breeding goal:
    the lowest ones will have a negative effect on the breeding goal traits and the highest ones will improve breeding goal traits.
    Birds will be ranked based on estimated breeding values and that ranking will be used to select future parents.
    When, for example, a group of male birds with the highest breeding value for egg yield
    are selected as cocks for the next generations,
    their daughters will produce more eggs than the present generation of hens.
    Selection creates progress in breeding goal traits.
    The testing capacity of the station was limited in the number of pens with trap houses.
    Therefore, each generation approximately 600 males and 600 females were produced
    as selection candidates and recorded for body weight and egg production.
    Females are selected based on own performance for egg production.
    Males are selected based on the performance of their sisters.
    Initially, 30 males and 300 females were selected to produce the next generation.
    This corresponds to selected proportions of approximately 10-20% in the males and 50-60% in the females.
    Each male was then mated to ten females.
    Every generation of pure line Horro birds was kept to be used as parents for the coming generations
    and for distribution of chicks to other centers.
    This so-called nucleus flock is being kept at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center.
    Currently, the breed is being tested in five distinct agro-ecological zones by private sector multipliers and brooders.
    In total 12,600 animals have been distributed for this test.
    The aim is to compare the performance of the chickens in the different regions,
    which show large differences in altitude, rainfall and temperature.
    So far, cross breeding has not been considered in the breeding program.
    Developing pure line Horro is the target of the breeding program, but in the future cross breeding might be considered.
    Evaluation of the breeding program was conducted when the program was in generation 8.
    We estimated breeding values of all generations to evaluate the trend of changes over the generations.
    The genetic trends were positive for both traits under selection from generation 4 and 6 onwards.
    A summary of the results of the chicken breeding program is shown here.
    It shows that by generation 8, survival has improved from less than 50%
    in the base generation to almost 100% in generation 8.
    Body weight per bird at 16 weeks had increased substantially from 550 gram to 1100 gram.
    Egg production tripled from 64 eggs per hen per year in the base generation to 172 eggs per hen per year by generation 8.
    You have now seen a real-life example of the use of the breeding program scheme.
    The example of the Horro chicken shows that a breeding program can be started with even modest resources.
    In this breeding program, we used a relatively small laying house
    which put limits on the testing capacity and the selection intensity.
    Selection was on own performance which requires relatively little statistical skills.
    Yet, the results after a few generations of selection show that
    the improved Horro will have a major impact on the household economy of smallholder farmers.
    The main objective of the breeding program in the future is to develop
    a sustainable multiplication and delivery system by developing public-private partnerships (PPP). view all
     In the next 12 minutes, Dr. Tadelle Dessie will explain the history of this breeding program and why it is needed. He explains how all the steps of breeding program design were followed in developing this program. After the clip, you will answer a few questions about the structure of the Horro breeding program and why it was developed in the way explained in the clip. 
     
     




    subtitle:
     
     
    In this clip, we will show what a real breeding program for chickens looks like.
    We will take you through the design step-by-step and explain in each step which choices were made, and why.
    After seeing this clip,
    you should have a good idea of the resources needed to set up and carry out a breeding program in practice.
    In many developing countries, poultry offers poor people a pathway out of poverty.
    A joint project was developed and implemented by Ethiopian Institute of Agriculture Research,
    International Livestock Research Institute, and Wageningen University and Research.
    The project was funded by the Koepon Foundation.
    The aim was to improve the productivity of the village poultry production system in Ethiopia.
    The breeding program was established in 2008 and focused on Horro chicken.
    Horro is an indigenous chicken type named after the geographic region of
    origin, located in the western part of Ethiopia near the Blue Nile gorge.
    The population is highly diverse, both genetically as well as phenotypically.
    The aim of the program was to make Horro chickens more profitable for the poor people in those regions
    and to conserve the existing genetic diversity.
    The program started with a survey to understand the production system and needs,
    and constraints of smallholder chicken farmers in Ethiopia.
    A total of 225 households were interviewed.
    We wanted to understand the socio-economic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions,
    and to understand the important functions of chickens in their households.
    The questionnaire was also designed to collect general information on village poultry production, such as:
    production objectives and goals, flock structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits,
    and farmers' selection criteria and practices.
    We found that most smallholder production systems maintained birds under scavenging regimens
    in the backyards with little or no supplemental feeding,
    no health care and very high mortality.
    The main purpose of keeping chickens was the sale of eggs and live animals,
    and the occasional slaughter of animals for home consumption.
    The results of this study in Ethiopia showed that farmers across all geographic regions
    rated growth and egg production as the traits they wanted to be improved the most.
    The results from the survey were used to define the breeding goal "traits" and their relative importance in the production environment.
    Production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions,
    followed by source of income from sales of eggs and live animals and meat for home consumption.
    The market price of chickens is primarily dictated by weight,
    but farmers rated growth of males and number of eggs followed by growth of females as traits they would like to see improved.
    Therefore, the breeding goal was to develop a productive breed based on indigenous chicken genetic resources
    that can survive and reproduce in the production environment of village farmers.
    The breeding goal traits were increased egg production (number),
    increased body weight, decreased age at first egg and increased survival.
    The study was done at the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.
    The base population was established from 3,000 eggs purchased from various locations
    in the Horro region, in Ethiopia.
    Twenty sires (male chickens) and 260 dams (female chickens) were successfully hatched and raised.
    After 18 weeks of age, a total of 240 females and 24 males were picked randomly and transferred to layer houses.
    There they were kept in groups of 1 male with 10 females in separate pens.
    Each pen had a trap nest for individual recording of egg production and pedigree.
    Since the breeding program aimed at increasing body weight as well as at increasing egg production,
    collection of information was done accordingly.
    Phenotypic traits recorded were body weights at hatch and on weeks 2, 6, 8, 12 and 16, for males and females.
    Age at first egg was recorded for each hen and egg production was recorded every month until 44 weeks of age.
    The cumulative monthly egg production records were used for analysis.
    Mortality was recorded when it happened.
    The breeding program was started before parameter estimates for preferred traits were available.
    As a result, selection was based on individual performance,
    called "own performance" or "mass selection", until the 8th generation.
    In the 8th generation, genetic parameters of growth
    and egg production traits were estimated using genetic models implemented in statistical software.
    Heritability for body weight at 16 weeks was 0.37, and for cumulative egg number it was 0.32.
    These heritabilities correspond to an accuracy of 0.56 and 0.49 respectively
    when using mass selection.
    In 2017, the breeding program was in generation 9
    and genetic parameters have been estimated based on full pedigree of 8 generations.
    From now on, selection will be based on estimated breeding values rather than on mass selection.
    The estimated breeding value indicates the value of the animal with respect to the breeding goal:
    the lowest ones will have a negative effect on the breeding goal traits and the highest ones will improve breeding goal traits.
    Birds will be ranked based on estimated breeding values and that ranking will be used to select future parents.
    When, for example, a group of male birds with the highest breeding value for egg yield
    are selected as cocks for the next generations,
    their daughters will produce more eggs than the present generation of hens.
    Selection creates progress in breeding goal traits.
    The testing capacity of the station was limited in the number of pens with trap houses.
    Therefore, each generation approximately 600 males and 600 females were produced
    as selection candidates and recorded for body weight and egg production.
    Females are selected based on own performance for egg production.
    Males are selected based on the performance of their sisters.
    Initially, 30 males and 300 females were selected to produce the next generation.
    This corresponds to selected proportions of approximately 10-20% in the males and 50-60% in the females.
    Each male was then mated to ten females.
    Every generation of pure line Horro birds was kept to be used as parents for the coming generations
    and for distribution of chicks to other centers.
    This so-called nucleus flock is being kept at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center.
    Currently, the breed is being tested in five distinct agro-ecological zones by private sector multipliers and brooders.
    In total 12,600 animals have been distributed for this test.
    The aim is to compare the performance of the chickens in the different regions,
    which show large differences in altitude, rainfall and temperature.
    So far, cross breeding has not been considered in the breeding program.
    Developing pure line Horro is the target of the breeding program, but in the future cross breeding might be considered.
    Evaluation of the breeding program was conducted when the program was in generation 8.
    We estimated breeding values of all generations to evaluate the trend of changes over the generations.
    The genetic trends were positive for both traits under selection from generation 4 and 6 onwards.
    A summary of the results of the chicken breeding program is shown here.
    It shows that by generation 8, survival has improved from less than 50%
    in the base generation to almost 100% in generation 8.
    Body weight per bird at 16 weeks had increased substantially from 550 gram to 1100 gram.
    Egg production tripled from 64 eggs per hen per year in the base generation to 172 eggs per hen per year by generation 8.
    You have now seen a real-life example of the use of the breeding program scheme.
    The example of the Horro chicken shows that a breeding program can be started with even modest resources.
    In this breeding program, we used a relatively small laying house
    which put limits on the testing capacity and the selection intensity.
    Selection was on own performance which requires relatively little statistical skills.
    Yet, the results after a few generations of selection show that
    the improved Horro will have a major impact on the household economy of smallholder farmers.
    The main objective of the breeding program in the future is to develop
    a sustainable multiplication and delivery system by developing public-private partnerships (PPP).
    95
    Views

    What is a Breeding Value?

    ExperienceEmily Published the article • 0 comments • 95 views • 2017-11-21 06:09 • came from similar tags

    What is a Breeding Value?

    A breeding value is nothing more than a value that you give to a particular animal to indicate its value for breeding in a certain breeding program. This means that the breeding value depends on the traits you are looking at, which subsequently depends on the traits that you have defined as important for your breeding program. A breeding value is defined as a deviation from the population mean, meaning that animals with a positive breeding value have genetic potential that is better than the population average, and animals with a negative breeding value are less valuable than the population average. 

    When you have determined the breeding values for a certain group of animals for a certain (combination of) trait(s), you will be able to rank the animals according to these breeding values. For example, if you want to have larger animals, you can rank the animals based on their breeding value for the trait “body size” and you can select the ones with the highest breeding value as parents for the next generation of animals. This enables you to select the best animals, those that you want to breed with in order to have an improved next generation!

    Now you will get more explanation on the concept of breeding values and we will challenge you to estimate breeding values yourself.
     
    This image shows Horro chickens at the Debrezeit research station in Ethiopia, with their estimated breeding values.
      view all
    What is a Breeding Value?

    A breeding value is nothing more than a value that you give to a particular animal to indicate its value for breeding in a certain breeding program. This means that the breeding value depends on the traits you are looking at, which subsequently depends on the traits that you have defined as important for your breeding program. A breeding value is defined as a deviation from the population mean, meaning that animals with a positive breeding value have genetic potential that is better than the population average, and animals with a negative breeding value are less valuable than the population average. 

    When you have determined the breeding values for a certain group of animals for a certain (combination of) trait(s), you will be able to rank the animals according to these breeding values. For example, if you want to have larger animals, you can rank the animals based on their breeding value for the trait “body size” and you can select the ones with the highest breeding value as parents for the next generation of animals. This enables you to select the best animals, those that you want to breed with in order to have an improved next generation!

    Now you will get more explanation on the concept of breeding values and we will challenge you to estimate breeding values yourself.
     
    This image shows Horro chickens at the Debrezeit research station in Ethiopia, with their estimated breeding values.
     
    228
    Views

    Can you share some practical ecological agriculture methods to farmers?

    Reply

    QuestionsOlivia Post a question • 1 people followed • 0 replies • 228 views • 2017-11-08 08:35 • came from similar tags

    93
    Views

    How to apply for oneacreland.com certification for your business.

    Experienceoneacrelandadmin Published the article • 0 comments • 93 views • 2017-11-07 17:02 • came from similar tags

    Step 1:Enter the  homepage of oneacreland.com and click the upper right corner image ,it's right of green post button.
     

    Step 2:click the little Edit button in the middle of webpage.

    Step 3:Around the upper right corner,you can see Apply for certification,then click it.

    Step 4:upload your certification documents in the form and submit.and wait for approve.
     
    Method 2: Juttst click the rul :https://www.oneacreland.com/%3 ... rify/ view all
    Step 1:Enter the  homepage of oneacreland.com and click the upper right corner image ,it's right of green post button.
     

    Step 2:click the little Edit button in the middle of webpage.

    Step 3:Around the upper right corner,you can see Apply for certification,then click it.

    Step 4:upload your certification documents in the form and submit.and wait for approve.
     
    Method 2: Juttst click the rul :https://www.oneacreland.com/%3 ... rify/
    112
    Views

    How to grow bell pepper?

    ExperienceHowgrowTV Published the article • 0 comments • 112 views • 2017-11-07 16:40 • came from similar tags

     

     
     
     
    subtitle:


    here's a tale of two peppers the green one costs half the price of the red but here's the thing they're the same peppers seriously so why you paying double for red to answer that we have to answer this pepper how does it grow [Music] now all peppers start out green at this stage they're mature but not yet ripe it's like a green tomato before it turns red it's sugars aren't fully developed the red yellow and orange bell peppers you buy in the store are all different varieties that have been bred to fully ripen at those colors bell peppers are great sources of vitamins A b6 and C but yellow peppers pack about three times more vitamin C than Reds [Music] in this episode I'm following the story of the red bell-pepper it takes three to four weeks for a pepper to go from green to chocolate color to finally read each week caring for it gets riskier translation more expensive see red peppers are super sensitive to extremes like a sudden heavy rain or a sharp temperature dip that's why most are grown in warm climates like California or Florida New Jersey is a top producing state for green peppers in South Jersey there's one farmer left growing Reds and open fields that's Bob Booth a legend among farmers his secret is in the soil Bob nourishes the land for three years before planting peppers or any crop on that plot how does he do this for starters he uses leaf compost in place of chemical fertilizer so this is just just leaves from people's backyard but so warm as the leaves break down they add rich organic matter to the soil this supplies vital nutrients to Bob's crops you have to be in it not for the year and now you have to think longer term and the next generation many farmers are fertilizing the crop daily or weekly through the irrigation system and it's almost as if the crop is treated like a junkie on cocaine we're letting the soil feel across you want to leave the land in better condition that when you took it on [Music] [Music] when the soil is ready Bob transplants the seedlings he's grown in the greenhouse yes it all starts from those tiny seeds inside your pepper when the plants are mature enough they flower and those flowers are pollinated simply by the wind as the fruit begins to grow Bob stakes the plants to keep them off the ground and he stays vigilant for fungus and insects that could easily wipe out his crop a crack as Tiny as this could let rain seep in and bacteria grow quickly causing the pepper to rot but it's about way more than just keeping these peppers alive bob has to satisfy our demand for cosmetically perfect peppers this is one that was jammed in tight and it's misshapen you couldn't put that in on the grocery store shelf that's a beautiful pepper perfect shape this is cosmetically perfect it's a number one this one is not morons up getting disposed back on the ground consumers would be surprised by the amount of waste or sort house that you have and not only in pepper but in all crops [Music] when the peppers are 80% red harvesters carefully break the stems by hand the peppers will finish coloring by the time they hit store shelves a couple days later this harvest crew spends hours with their backs bent over the peppers when they're done they move with impressive speed and unison to gather all the buckets this is the very definition of teamwork any peppers that are misshapen go to processors who cut them up Bob earns seven times less for these still perfectly delicious peppers [Music] as winter moves in the late season harvest is usually Bob's best he says a touch of cold weather actually sweetens his crop and since we now know that most of America's red peppers are grown in warm climates that means these peppers just might be the country's sweetest [Music] wait have you subscribed yet don't leave until you subscribe click that button is it here is it here or is it here click it [Music] view all
     


     
     
     
    subtitle:


    here's a tale of two peppers the green one costs half the price of the red but here's the thing they're the same peppers seriously so why you paying double for red to answer that we have to answer this pepper how does it grow [Music] now all peppers start out green at this stage they're mature but not yet ripe it's like a green tomato before it turns red it's sugars aren't fully developed the red yellow and orange bell peppers you buy in the store are all different varieties that have been bred to fully ripen at those colors bell peppers are great sources of vitamins A b6 and C but yellow peppers pack about three times more vitamin C than Reds [Music] in this episode I'm following the story of the red bell-pepper it takes three to four weeks for a pepper to go from green to chocolate color to finally read each week caring for it gets riskier translation more expensive see red peppers are super sensitive to extremes like a sudden heavy rain or a sharp temperature dip that's why most are grown in warm climates like California or Florida New Jersey is a top producing state for green peppers in South Jersey there's one farmer left growing Reds and open fields that's Bob Booth a legend among farmers his secret is in the soil Bob nourishes the land for three years before planting peppers or any crop on that plot how does he do this for starters he uses leaf compost in place of chemical fertilizer so this is just just leaves from people's backyard but so warm as the leaves break down they add rich organic matter to the soil this supplies vital nutrients to Bob's crops you have to be in it not for the year and now you have to think longer term and the next generation many farmers are fertilizing the crop daily or weekly through the irrigation system and it's almost as if the crop is treated like a junkie on cocaine we're letting the soil feel across you want to leave the land in better condition that when you took it on [Music] [Music] when the soil is ready Bob transplants the seedlings he's grown in the greenhouse yes it all starts from those tiny seeds inside your pepper when the plants are mature enough they flower and those flowers are pollinated simply by the wind as the fruit begins to grow Bob stakes the plants to keep them off the ground and he stays vigilant for fungus and insects that could easily wipe out his crop a crack as Tiny as this could let rain seep in and bacteria grow quickly causing the pepper to rot but it's about way more than just keeping these peppers alive bob has to satisfy our demand for cosmetically perfect peppers this is one that was jammed in tight and it's misshapen you couldn't put that in on the grocery store shelf that's a beautiful pepper perfect shape this is cosmetically perfect it's a number one this one is not morons up getting disposed back on the ground consumers would be surprised by the amount of waste or sort house that you have and not only in pepper but in all crops [Music] when the peppers are 80% red harvesters carefully break the stems by hand the peppers will finish coloring by the time they hit store shelves a couple days later this harvest crew spends hours with their backs bent over the peppers when they're done they move with impressive speed and unison to gather all the buckets this is the very definition of teamwork any peppers that are misshapen go to processors who cut them up Bob earns seven times less for these still perfectly delicious peppers [Music] as winter moves in the late season harvest is usually Bob's best he says a touch of cold weather actually sweetens his crop and since we now know that most of America's red peppers are grown in warm climates that means these peppers just might be the country's sweetest [Music] wait have you subscribed yet don't leave until you subscribe click that button is it here is it here or is it here click it [Music]

    92
    Views

    What’s the difference between peaches and nectarines?How to grow peach

    ExperienceHowgrowTV Published the article • 0 comments • 92 views • 2017-11-07 16:40 • came from similar tags

     

     
    subtitle:
     
     


     
    subtitle:
     
    92
    Views

    How to grow blueberry and how the blueberry was tamed.

    ExperienceHowgrowTV Published the article • 0 comments • 92 views • 2017-11-07 16:40 • came from similar tags

     

     
    subtitle:


    yeah [Music] if I could nominate one fruit to be the national fruit of the United States it would be the blueberry sorry Apple American we spear sleeve guard our independence we cherish our freedom for even known to be a bit wild let's go with that because that my friends is also the spirit of the blueberry even though it's native to North America even though it's been growing here for thousands of years it remains totally untamed until very recently you know my grandmother never even saw a blueberry as a young woman and she ran a fruit stand in Brooklyn it wasn't until the early 1940s that farmed blueberries really took off nationwide before that if you wanted blueberries you had to find and pick them in the wild so why was it so hard to farm the blueberry to understand that we have to find out blueberries how does it grow our investigation starts with story Pine Barrens of New Jersey because official state fruit is the blueberry this is one small village the first place of the global blueberry business today at the National Historic Site and home to a big annual blueberry festival a century ago it was the first place anywhere to commercially farm the highbush blueberry wait wait stop the music we're not going to whitewash history to fully appreciate the blueberries place in American culture we have to go back to the huge role it played in the lives of our native people for then the blueberry was food it was medicine it was a spiritual symbol in fact they called them star berries for their perfect five pointed star at the blossom end they were a gift from the Great Spirit from groups to indigenous people use every part of the blueberry bush they brewed a tea for women in childbirth they boiled the blueberries down into a thick cough syrup they also dried them so they could be eaten to the long lean winter month the waves of European immigrants who came to this country embrace this new fruit but none of them is deeply at the Native American people it wasn't until 1911 that blueberries got serious attention again this time from the daughter of a cranberry farmer she lived right here at White's bog then New Jersey's largest cranberry farm Elizabeth Coleman white a heroine in the male-dominated stories of American agriculture she had the vision to expand her father's cranberry operation to include blueberries in the summer and so she invited Frederick Colville a botanist who had just made a groundbreaking blueberry discovery previously people had dug up wild blueberry bushes and replanted them in their best soil they nurtured them like they would any other fruit crop only to watch them die Koval figured out a strange but fundamental secret blueberries demand highly acidic soil silhouette can't support most other crops and Jersey's barren Pinelands were perfect for blueberries they grew wild everywhere but farming is all about growing a consistent crop so white and Cole set out to find the best of the wild blueberries that they could then cultivate and eventually crossbreed I should probably note here that there's not just one kind of blueberry just like there are many kinds of apples there are blueberries with different colors sizes tastes and textures white and distant opens to search the woods for large berries she named each plant they choose to cultivate after the person found it now to grow a whole field of rubles white and coal will use the same cloning a technique that's used today for that we're heading to Atlantic blueberry Company once the world's largest blueberry farm it's still the largest in New Jersey the US by the way is the worldwide leader in cultivated blueberries while Canada is tops for wild one what's the difference wild berries grow on low bushes found wild then fertilized and cared for like farmed one but we're following the story of the cultivated high Bush which provides the lion's share of the world's fresh blueberry the life of a blueberry bush begins in the nursery small cuttings from a chosen variety are planted and nurtured until they're strong enough to be transferred to the field a modest harvest can take five years but a bush bears fruit for up to 50 blueberries are born in the spring after the bush is blooming with bell-shaped flower you can see what the star shape at the tips of their petal when the berries emerge they're the lightest of green then they deepen into reddish pink and finally into their famous dusty blue to extend the season most farms grow at least three different blueberries ones that ripen early midseason and late so if you think your blueberries taste different throughout the summer you're right you learn all the same variety but there's an even deeper secret here the best blueberries ones with flavor that would knock your socks off they are not sold in stores the big farms don't grow them they're too risky the berries are too delicate for the bushes too sensitive but you might find these tasty ones at farmers markets they're also available in seed catalogs so you can grow your own that means you can pop these little powerhouses of vitamin C and a-plus antioxidants whenever you like when it's time to harvest blueberries don't make it easy they don't all ripen at the same time on the bush so Pickers need to harvest with as much care as we be seen taking only the right list of berries just to get something on is difficult okay ready gentlemen and it's a gentle I'm watching a gentle roll of the thumb that gets these off Oh Apple see that I'm not good [Music] [Applause] these guys have to have the lightest of hand this sort of frosted color of the blueberry is a protective coating for the bloom and if you touch them too much they turn really dark like that which means that the coating is off and it means that the shelf-life of these berries is cut by two or three days [Music] I really don't call them Pickers I call them professional harvester there's this idea that anybody can come out here and they're going to come up with a with a great quality berry I want to have no you don't want to see inside my bucket I know look at them look can I just work yeah you're gonna have a speaker got a good job I am NOT getting the hang of this and it was a very sold fresh or harvested by hand but usually after to picking machines do a final sweep shaking the bushes to release the remaining berry since they may suffer a few knobs they go straight to the freezer to be sold as frozen berries meanwhile hand picked berries hit the sorting line a color scanner weeds out under ripe berries anything that isn't blue these may go into juice purees even pet food the berries then drop onto a pressure plate softer over ripe berries moves slower than firm one so they rejected from the line and often wind up as frozen thanks to the pioneering work done right here in New Jersey a century ago blueberries are now farmed all over the world from New Zealand to the Netherlands and the antioxidant craze has helped global production triple in the last decade alone it's a huge accomplishment for a wild little American berry or maybe it was destiny after all the Native Americans think that blueberry was a divine gift and so did one of our most American of authors when I see as now in climbing one of our Hills huckleberry and blueberry bushes bent to the ground with fruit I think of them as fruits fit to grow on the most Olympian or heaven pointing Hill it does not occur to you at first that where such thoughts are suggested is Mount Olympus and that you who taste these berries are of God why and his only royal moment should man abdicate his throne [Music] wait before you go I have one small request we are getting closer and closer to 100,000 subscribers if all of you just asked one friend one person to subscribe to this channel then we would smash through 100,000 and if you're not subscribed go ahead and do it quick click that subscribe where is it is it here and there click that subscribe button wherever it is the more subscribers we have on this channel the more resources we have to make more videos so go do it do it let's get pick up your phone picked a text a friend right now Texas what yeah okay alright let's do this guy's thank you high five high five view all
     


     
    subtitle:


    yeah [Music] if I could nominate one fruit to be the national fruit of the United States it would be the blueberry sorry Apple American we spear sleeve guard our independence we cherish our freedom for even known to be a bit wild let's go with that because that my friends is also the spirit of the blueberry even though it's native to North America even though it's been growing here for thousands of years it remains totally untamed until very recently you know my grandmother never even saw a blueberry as a young woman and she ran a fruit stand in Brooklyn it wasn't until the early 1940s that farmed blueberries really took off nationwide before that if you wanted blueberries you had to find and pick them in the wild so why was it so hard to farm the blueberry to understand that we have to find out blueberries how does it grow our investigation starts with story Pine Barrens of New Jersey because official state fruit is the blueberry this is one small village the first place of the global blueberry business today at the National Historic Site and home to a big annual blueberry festival a century ago it was the first place anywhere to commercially farm the highbush blueberry wait wait stop the music we're not going to whitewash history to fully appreciate the blueberries place in American culture we have to go back to the huge role it played in the lives of our native people for then the blueberry was food it was medicine it was a spiritual symbol in fact they called them star berries for their perfect five pointed star at the blossom end they were a gift from the Great Spirit from groups to indigenous people use every part of the blueberry bush they brewed a tea for women in childbirth they boiled the blueberries down into a thick cough syrup they also dried them so they could be eaten to the long lean winter month the waves of European immigrants who came to this country embrace this new fruit but none of them is deeply at the Native American people it wasn't until 1911 that blueberries got serious attention again this time from the daughter of a cranberry farmer she lived right here at White's bog then New Jersey's largest cranberry farm Elizabeth Coleman white a heroine in the male-dominated stories of American agriculture she had the vision to expand her father's cranberry operation to include blueberries in the summer and so she invited Frederick Colville a botanist who had just made a groundbreaking blueberry discovery previously people had dug up wild blueberry bushes and replanted them in their best soil they nurtured them like they would any other fruit crop only to watch them die Koval figured out a strange but fundamental secret blueberries demand highly acidic soil silhouette can't support most other crops and Jersey's barren Pinelands were perfect for blueberries they grew wild everywhere but farming is all about growing a consistent crop so white and Cole set out to find the best of the wild blueberries that they could then cultivate and eventually crossbreed I should probably note here that there's not just one kind of blueberry just like there are many kinds of apples there are blueberries with different colors sizes tastes and textures white and distant opens to search the woods for large berries she named each plant they choose to cultivate after the person found it now to grow a whole field of rubles white and coal will use the same cloning a technique that's used today for that we're heading to Atlantic blueberry Company once the world's largest blueberry farm it's still the largest in New Jersey the US by the way is the worldwide leader in cultivated blueberries while Canada is tops for wild one what's the difference wild berries grow on low bushes found wild then fertilized and cared for like farmed one but we're following the story of the cultivated high Bush which provides the lion's share of the world's fresh blueberry the life of a blueberry bush begins in the nursery small cuttings from a chosen variety are planted and nurtured until they're strong enough to be transferred to the field a modest harvest can take five years but a bush bears fruit for up to 50 blueberries are born in the spring after the bush is blooming with bell-shaped flower you can see what the star shape at the tips of their petal when the berries emerge they're the lightest of green then they deepen into reddish pink and finally into their famous dusty blue to extend the season most farms grow at least three different blueberries ones that ripen early midseason and late so if you think your blueberries taste different throughout the summer you're right you learn all the same variety but there's an even deeper secret here the best blueberries ones with flavor that would knock your socks off they are not sold in stores the big farms don't grow them they're too risky the berries are too delicate for the bushes too sensitive but you might find these tasty ones at farmers markets they're also available in seed catalogs so you can grow your own that means you can pop these little powerhouses of vitamin C and a-plus antioxidants whenever you like when it's time to harvest blueberries don't make it easy they don't all ripen at the same time on the bush so Pickers need to harvest with as much care as we be seen taking only the right list of berries just to get something on is difficult okay ready gentlemen and it's a gentle I'm watching a gentle roll of the thumb that gets these off Oh Apple see that I'm not good [Music] [Applause] these guys have to have the lightest of hand this sort of frosted color of the blueberry is a protective coating for the bloom and if you touch them too much they turn really dark like that which means that the coating is off and it means that the shelf-life of these berries is cut by two or three days [Music] I really don't call them Pickers I call them professional harvester there's this idea that anybody can come out here and they're going to come up with a with a great quality berry I want to have no you don't want to see inside my bucket I know look at them look can I just work yeah you're gonna have a speaker got a good job I am NOT getting the hang of this and it was a very sold fresh or harvested by hand but usually after to picking machines do a final sweep shaking the bushes to release the remaining berry since they may suffer a few knobs they go straight to the freezer to be sold as frozen berries meanwhile hand picked berries hit the sorting line a color scanner weeds out under ripe berries anything that isn't blue these may go into juice purees even pet food the berries then drop onto a pressure plate softer over ripe berries moves slower than firm one so they rejected from the line and often wind up as frozen thanks to the pioneering work done right here in New Jersey a century ago blueberries are now farmed all over the world from New Zealand to the Netherlands and the antioxidant craze has helped global production triple in the last decade alone it's a huge accomplishment for a wild little American berry or maybe it was destiny after all the Native Americans think that blueberry was a divine gift and so did one of our most American of authors when I see as now in climbing one of our Hills huckleberry and blueberry bushes bent to the ground with fruit I think of them as fruits fit to grow on the most Olympian or heaven pointing Hill it does not occur to you at first that where such thoughts are suggested is Mount Olympus and that you who taste these berries are of God why and his only royal moment should man abdicate his throne [Music] wait before you go I have one small request we are getting closer and closer to 100,000 subscribers if all of you just asked one friend one person to subscribe to this channel then we would smash through 100,000 and if you're not subscribed go ahead and do it quick click that subscribe where is it is it here and there click that subscribe button wherever it is the more subscribers we have on this channel the more resources we have to make more videos so go do it do it let's get pick up your phone picked a text a friend right now Texas what yeah okay alright let's do this guy's thank you high five high five

    105
    Views

    How to grow SEEDLESS Watermelon

    ExperienceHowgrowTV Published the article • 0 comments • 105 views • 2017-11-07 16:40 • came from similar tags

     

     
     
    subtitle:
     
     


     
     
    subtitle:
     
    137
    Views

    How to grow avocado?

    ExperienceHowgrowTV Published the article • 0 comments • 137 views • 2017-11-07 16:40 • came from similar tags

     
     
     

     
    subtitle:


    [Music] almost everything you've been told about how to choose an avocado how to ripen it and how to cut it is wrong but we've come straight to the source California family that's been farming avocados for decades and they are about to school on America's trendiest fruit avocados are an ancient Mexican fruit they weren't even grown in California until the 1900s and it took generations for American eaters to really embrace them first there was a name the Aztecs called them a lock-up which means testicle fruit American farmers tried alligator pear and butter pear finally they went with avocado the second issue was sweetness who ever liked a fruit though wasn't sweet avocados are like olives they get their flavor from natural oil not sugar in fact the first person to ever eat an avocado was a brave soul these things are rock solid on the tree and they will never ever soften until they come off by California law avocados not allowed to be picked until they reach at least 8 percent oil content if they're picked before that will never soften yeah I'm a geek mm-hmm yeah but no fork button over there okay and yeah yeah okay all right okay it's really it's difficult to see these because they're green right merriday the leaves are green and the avocados are green how long does it take to do a whole tree fondos minuto oh la la la la I love uh-huh drinks I mean look so it would take him 30 minutes to do this whole tree it would take me 90 minutes to do this okay see for the blade against the the stem and then you cut and it falls into the bag okay okay that looks like it it's different on the perfect to the worst do they get anything this would take me a year to do they would fire me in a heartbeat the curve of these blades right across the top of the avocado so they're perfect perfectly designed for this especially for collectors like me that is the easiest part of the job thank you the whole family has been farming this land for over 40 years and the oldest trees are over 40 feet tall they grow Hass avocados also for days bacon and Reed [Music] I'm on my way to meet Mimi hold to get all her avocado tips and tricks' me this is beautiful first stop busting the big mess on how to choose an avocado okay Mimi there are hacks all over the internet that you can tell a ripe avocado by picking out this little nub is that true no that's not true this little nub or the button is actually a piece of the stem and the stem and the skin protect the fruit once you remove either the stem or the skin then the air the oxygen can get into the avocado and turn it brown this part will probably get riper quicker and when they get it home they're going to be mad because I'll have to cut this end off and eat the rest of yeah so don't do that don't ruin my avocado so the only way of telling if they're ripe is to seal it and you're looking for just to barely give okay not be mushy then it's over not rock-hard either okay alright perfect for every moment the best way to choose an avocado Mimi says is to buy a firm green one and ripen it yourself on the kitchen counter avocados should never go in the fridge the cold changes their flavor you wouldn't put your olive oil in the fridge would you then Mimi gave me the skinny on how to best remove the flesh okay so some people think that you should just take a spoon and scoop it out that's what I do yeah and it's okay if you want to eat it that way hmm but if you want to get all the nutrients and make sure that you don't get any of the bad spots it's better to just peel it away and then you get a beautiful piece of fruit that was amazing it came off so easily I rarely see this darker green color because it usually comes away with the peel it's so good it's creamy it's bright its fruity you know you forget that avvocato is a suit like an apple like a pear it's obvious like something this other category I'm tempted to dig right in let's have a do after you an avocado farm is like no other farm I've ever been to the mature trees have grown so big it's like walking through a magical forest the ground is thick with fallen leaves I have to duck around in under branches in March the trees are laden with mature fruit but there are also buds lots of tiny buds ready to bloom and become next year's crop 99% of what Mimi's family now grows is Hass why because that's what the market demands the California avocado industry started with the fuerte but it's got a very thin skin so it's more easily bruised the bumpier thicker skins Hass and take a lot more knocks without showing blemishes and since we want avocados no matter where we live these can be shipped from California or Mexico without much law back on the farms the Holts family faces all kinds of challenges from insects to strong winter winds that knock the fruit off the tree but the biggest issue is keeping their trees hydrated extended drought has caused the state to ration water to farmers who say it's nearly impossible for them to care for their trees with that little water some like the Holtz's have drilled their own wells others have had to stump their trees it's a heartbreaking sight to see these once lush beautiful trees cut down to the stump as stumps they require much less water it's a tough decision for farmers it means shrinking their profits for several years but the amazing thing about avocado trees is that they can recover they can grow back and the ones that we grow from old stumps grow more vigorously it's inspiring new hope grown from old [Music] view all
     
     
     


     
    subtitle:


    [Music] almost everything you've been told about how to choose an avocado how to ripen it and how to cut it is wrong but we've come straight to the source California family that's been farming avocados for decades and they are about to school on America's trendiest fruit avocados are an ancient Mexican fruit they weren't even grown in California until the 1900s and it took generations for American eaters to really embrace them first there was a name the Aztecs called them a lock-up which means testicle fruit American farmers tried alligator pear and butter pear finally they went with avocado the second issue was sweetness who ever liked a fruit though wasn't sweet avocados are like olives they get their flavor from natural oil not sugar in fact the first person to ever eat an avocado was a brave soul these things are rock solid on the tree and they will never ever soften until they come off by California law avocados not allowed to be picked until they reach at least 8 percent oil content if they're picked before that will never soften yeah I'm a geek mm-hmm yeah but no fork button over there okay and yeah yeah okay all right okay it's really it's difficult to see these because they're green right merriday the leaves are green and the avocados are green how long does it take to do a whole tree fondos minuto oh la la la la I love uh-huh drinks I mean look so it would take him 30 minutes to do this whole tree it would take me 90 minutes to do this okay see for the blade against the the stem and then you cut and it falls into the bag okay okay that looks like it it's different on the perfect to the worst do they get anything this would take me a year to do they would fire me in a heartbeat the curve of these blades right across the top of the avocado so they're perfect perfectly designed for this especially for collectors like me that is the easiest part of the job thank you the whole family has been farming this land for over 40 years and the oldest trees are over 40 feet tall they grow Hass avocados also for days bacon and Reed [Music] I'm on my way to meet Mimi hold to get all her avocado tips and tricks' me this is beautiful first stop busting the big mess on how to choose an avocado okay Mimi there are hacks all over the internet that you can tell a ripe avocado by picking out this little nub is that true no that's not true this little nub or the button is actually a piece of the stem and the stem and the skin protect the fruit once you remove either the stem or the skin then the air the oxygen can get into the avocado and turn it brown this part will probably get riper quicker and when they get it home they're going to be mad because I'll have to cut this end off and eat the rest of yeah so don't do that don't ruin my avocado so the only way of telling if they're ripe is to seal it and you're looking for just to barely give okay not be mushy then it's over not rock-hard either okay alright perfect for every moment the best way to choose an avocado Mimi says is to buy a firm green one and ripen it yourself on the kitchen counter avocados should never go in the fridge the cold changes their flavor you wouldn't put your olive oil in the fridge would you then Mimi gave me the skinny on how to best remove the flesh okay so some people think that you should just take a spoon and scoop it out that's what I do yeah and it's okay if you want to eat it that way hmm but if you want to get all the nutrients and make sure that you don't get any of the bad spots it's better to just peel it away and then you get a beautiful piece of fruit that was amazing it came off so easily I rarely see this darker green color because it usually comes away with the peel it's so good it's creamy it's bright its fruity you know you forget that avvocato is a suit like an apple like a pear it's obvious like something this other category I'm tempted to dig right in let's have a do after you an avocado farm is like no other farm I've ever been to the mature trees have grown so big it's like walking through a magical forest the ground is thick with fallen leaves I have to duck around in under branches in March the trees are laden with mature fruit but there are also buds lots of tiny buds ready to bloom and become next year's crop 99% of what Mimi's family now grows is Hass why because that's what the market demands the California avocado industry started with the fuerte but it's got a very thin skin so it's more easily bruised the bumpier thicker skins Hass and take a lot more knocks without showing blemishes and since we want avocados no matter where we live these can be shipped from California or Mexico without much law back on the farms the Holts family faces all kinds of challenges from insects to strong winter winds that knock the fruit off the tree but the biggest issue is keeping their trees hydrated extended drought has caused the state to ration water to farmers who say it's nearly impossible for them to care for their trees with that little water some like the Holtz's have drilled their own wells others have had to stump their trees it's a heartbreaking sight to see these once lush beautiful trees cut down to the stump as stumps they require much less water it's a tough decision for farmers it means shrinking their profits for several years but the amazing thing about avocado trees is that they can recover they can grow back and the ones that we grow from old stumps grow more vigorously it's inspiring new hope grown from old [Music]

    163
    Views

    We wanna purchase canned mashroom for exporting to Middle East

    Buyer Quoteswanghao Published the article • 0 comments • 163 views • 2017-11-05 16:39 • came from similar tags

     food factories in China is welcome,qq:1721156768,
     food factories in China is welcome,qq:1721156768,
    180
    Views

    招募活动:2000个优质的中国农机制造商正在火热审核中...........

    Questionsoneacrelandadmin Published the article • 0 comments • 180 views • 2017-11-01 09:00 • came from similar tags

    大家好,oneacreland是全球最大的农民问答社区和农产品交易市场,为了解决海外农民日常的农机使用需求,我们正在面向中国大陆招募第一批2000个优质的中国农机制造商。

    农机制造商可享受权利如下:

    1,农机制造商可以在oneacreland.com上建立一个免费的英文展台,用于公司介绍、公司视频和产品说明,方便海外农民可以直接浏览展台,在线咨询。
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    Normal Guy Quits JOB to Farm (pastured chickens)

    Daily LifeJustin Rhodes Published the article • 0 comments • 197 views • 2017-10-31 16:39 • came from similar tags

     

     
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    I was so sick of my job as an accountant I was like I'm out of here I'm gonna make this chicken thing work one way or another but I got to get out of this cubicle this is horrible so I just left I moved in my why me my wife and my one-year-old son moved in with the in-laws for a period of time there was nine of us living in a 1,700 square foot house every single night my name is Paul grieve I'm one of the cofounders of primal pastures in the CEO at pasture bird how did this compare to your very first burger I mean you didn't know anything about raising chickens we did we didn't know a thing we read some Joel Salatin and we ended up putting a little hover brooder inside of a garage and we started with like 50 chicks so we wasn't anything special at all okay it was absolute chaos like mayhem we had HBO Showtime Animal Planet National jigger to come fill the documentary because it's like this madhouse of chaos at all times but you know that's what we had to do like we had to just cut back fall expenses rack up credit cards like the whole as entrepreneurs story I mean this is the same thing that happens in a lot of industries so for us and for me especially my soul [Applause] all right so in April 2012 I was finishing my time as an officer in the Marine Corps and had some health problems I had arthritis everything from my ankles my knees my back couldn't breathe through my nose low energy and at 22 years old I couldn't really figure out what my problem was I didn't know what's going on so my whole family went on this real food adventure we started learning about how food actually affects the way that you feel and your health and your vitality and everything so we started eating a paleo diet and we started feeling so much better like two weeks in felt like a kid again I could breathe through my nose I had all this extra energy it could move everything was totally different and my family had same experience so my father-in-law lost a hundred pounds my brothers both lost a bunch of weight and felt way better so is it is the hover brute or something that you bought no or don't we met you slept together we slapped it together but you've got a heat heat lamp yep you got a cardboard box it was actually made out of wood okay and we put some wood chips down and how'd you learn to do that much man I think it was a I think that was a Joel Salatin recommendation paltry profits so you went off the pasture poultry traffic that was the Bible for us for the first year so have you talked to Joel Salatin it's been pretty cool yeah every time I meet him we're a little farther along in the process I don't know if we produce the same amount or maybe a little more than him yeah at some point we're gonna be like they're gonna get more chickens and that's gonna do this be surreal well he served up the pastured poultry deal on a silver platter for us and we're just picking up where he's kind of leaving it we started really trying to buy good food for our family that's how this whole thing started from that experience we started learning more about grass-fed and free-range and cage-free and all this sort of idealistic meats and doing the research we learned that a lot of those things are full of it they're they're BS so we got really bummed out about the meat labeling industry and while we were looking at this thing we really just said we can't find what we want in the grocery store and that bothered us quite a bit so Paul how many problems did you have at those first you said 50 yeah it went fairly well to be honest we didn't have problems until a year in when we started getting massive predator losses so really probably six to nine months in we lost like 1300 chickens and 135 lambs and like we almost went out of business it was super bad it was horrible actually we started adding livestock Guardian dogs about a year in and that was the best decision we ever made I mean it single-handedly saved the business really yeah I mean have you lost since then zero we were asked a single animal to a predator since we added livestock - four years ago we may have lost chickens to our livestock Guardian dogs but we haven't lost it we have plastic as to predators so there they are right now there it is you're saying here this is one of them yeah well that's one of the pups is that a good one I couldn't tell you pretty good I guess good dog these are all the females up here so we run the females all together we went to brought all males last year otherwise a puppy City so yeah 13 14 left our Guardian dogs on 148 close right now so do you have the original dog here yeah Duke down on the lower pastor he's her who's her original guy okay and his brother JJ's in the middle and grandma is Jane the big long-haired Great Pyrenees original yeah so yes that's one of the originals yeah again special place in your heart for her this is Jane yeah well she's one of the she's one of the ones that actually has a name so she's gotta be somewhat special but uh yeah she was our first female she's grandma dog - a lot of these dogs at home and she's very she's a very important dog for us maybe she's brown doe I don't think they're actually that mad let's just do instinct latest park stuff away so they don't really fight that much with the Predators but they will intimidate the bar can they keep them away okay she doesn't like anybody coming up by her fence line barking go get it we don't do any training but you see all these female they're watching their grandma bark off these dogs so they're gonna learn what do you feed them they do get a couple like a grain but we try to give them as much raw food as we can so you can get if we have chick chickens the diet on the pasture or whatever just natural causes though those birds they get animal organ meats pork organ me to get beef organ meats but the raw thing we love we just don't have enough of it to feed them pure raw in April of 2012 we ordered 50 chicks and the way that that story goes we're sitting around joking as a family ha ha wouldn't it be funny to get some chickens and put them in the backyard my brother Rob but sitting there in the little circle of guys that was talking he walks away and he comes back like 10 minutes later and he goes oh hey I just ordered 50 chicks are gonna be here in two weeks and we're like you did what you know I we've never raised anything before we'd never had an agriculture background never really studied this stuff and so we got the birds put up a little brooder we put the birds outside on pasture we raised him without any vaccines or drugs or antibiotics and we gave them certified organic soy free food and I mean we didn't know what we were doing at all probably most farmers would have said you can't raise chickens outside they're gonna die they're gonna get sick this and that but we didn't know any better so we just raised him the way we want to eat them and to feed our family so this right here was your pasture poultry pen 2.0 exactly this 2.0 so we started with a normal wood Mountain pen with a pole rope on it and all that stuff we broke our back on that for a couple years and then we said let's put wheels on this thing let's make it out of metal especially since we irrigate they get wet all the time this was pretty well for us you can see how they cave in though don't build it with a flat roof you want to build it with a pitch roof so the water comes in it gets pretty heavy in there yeah like a net over the metal is much better yeah it's more expensive to build it I think we had almost a thousand bucks in each one of these but to me we can drive up we could push them with a Kubota Gator instead of having to pull them and it just saves your back is much better this way better this was a thousand bucks how long does it take to pay for it so well it depends what program you're running in it but if you figure you're making five bucks a bird and you can run you got 80 Birds in each one if you definitely paying for itself in less than a year oh sweet well you guys want to help me push this thing real quick all right let's do it we're gonna push really hard I don't know if we're gonna be able to do it or not city amenities every day these all move every single day we use a little Kubota Gator to push them forward okay okay 65 man Christmas morning these things are moving ready one two three go oh yeah and then all this feed that was spilled behind will have the pigs come through and clean that up so I'm just winging ways to you is that what the pigs are for and all even for something out there cleanup program and baking program I mean yeah they're uh they'll come through I clean up all this feed just for you guys or for the you show the bacon - oh yeah we sell the pork definitely once it's ready but this is a chicken farm that we use lives other livestock for other reasons bugs not drugs so we believe that chickens should have a natural diet grass bug seeds and worms moving over fresh pasture they don't need the drugs so it I've never used vaccines or antibiotics or drugs or you know feed additives or any of that stuff you don't need to those first 50 chicks back in 2012 there was a thing called Facebook that was really popular so we put those first 50 chicks we said uh if anybody wants a few of these you know here's a link you can put a deposit down and reserve one or two and we thought what will offset the cost of raising these for our family so two weeks go by the birds are like this big now and all 50 had been deposits collected paid in full like they were done it was a done deal which was so crazy to us because my family was all mad at me for selling all the chicken they thought they were gonna be eaten now Paul look at him come running to you Betty why they come and run into you well they used to get fed before they got here they don't get fed anymore but really yeah well they don't really what do they eat they eat the grass there's a Kunekune e grazing Pig this is the best backyard they don't like the electric fence much either so is the bass backyard taking a pig for backyard operation there will graze 100% grass they'll eat one veggie they don't root they won't destroy your pastures in these fields I think if you want y'all never mind they are if any of them know you tried to get in the big circle right now by the time we harvested the birds and harvesting was literally like an iphone here with YouTube on how to chicken processing from Joel Salatin in the bird like right here hanging in the tree so that's how we first started out but we harvested the birds we had a waiting list of like a hundred and ten families that all wanted you know real local pasture raised chicken and the next month we did a hundred Birds then a few months later we did 200 and then we did 400 and we did a thousand this is the original Paul King joke how are you King four oh he's just for you guys are just baby young Kings out here you guys are just five years old yeah this is just a little puppy come on now Paul this is just five years five years later man no way we're gonna go see what it looks like five years later and this is just gonna be a glimpse y'all yeah this is the smaller chicken farm but there's thirty chicken tractors and one of the big range coops and down in this field we have about 3,500 birds any given time and oh geez booting it friendly and this is important for us down in the desert as we do irrigated pastures down here so okay that will keep us on green grass year round we do 52 weeks out of the year we're producing birds which does help us because we don't have to lay people off and take time off we can really just keep it going it's good and bad a nine is five operation here yeah for sure it does help with wholesale and our other company pasture bird benefits from being able to do you know twelve months out of the year production so here you go this looks like it's just been moved recently you see the flies which are annoying but they help us break down the manure really really fast so they're gonna basically take it help us break it down yeah this just got moved to fresh pasture you can see we have pressurized water into this coop which is super nice so we're not tending water filling up water all the time that's just pressurized right into the coop on a loser and you look so you went from just a wooden pasture poaching pan meadow meadow pasture poultry pens to now this yes I mean you gotta hold them there well this will hold 500 and the freedom Rangers and now then these chickens look like you're almost ready to graduate they're ready to go yeah there in about eleventh grade here this is 500 Birds the first instinct people always say oh that's not very much room for 500 but we gotta remember is a square foot and a half for every bird that's moved every single day for 77 days so you really have over 100 square feet over the course of their life yeah we want to concentrate that manure and know exactly where it went down and get them off of that manure every single day yeah so that's what keeps us off the drug that's why we say bugs not drugs or and you watch them you know you see about 5% of them may be eating the feed ninety five percent are just out foraging green seeing fresh air sunshine this coop works really well for our environment out here and look they're acting like chickens yeah what do you know they're fighting they're walking around they're scratching they don't need to be dabiq they don't need to be be talon eyes they don't need to be vaccinated or antibiotic that I need drug or additives in the feed it's just really a truly a natural chicken a real program and it comes through in the flavor the health of the bird too so so we think the daily move is really important so they're actually on green grass every single day yeah if we left these guys for two or three days this would be a mud bath in here and there'd be no grass left all the bog all the good stuff about this would be gone so to us it's really important to be moving them all the time this is a really good set up to for range so we get some heavy rains through here in the winter time and this allows them to get out of the way if it's really wet in here they can get up and perch we can throw some straw and this system works really well for stuff like that too we hooked this up on misters 2 we don't need them right now it's not hot enough but if it goes over 100 this is useful because it'll bring the core temp it up of the entire thing got about 20 degrees just from running some water in here on mystery that works real well - is this made for this purpose or did you touch them it's just a normal greenhouse it's a high it's a high tunnel or whatever they call it but it's put on skids and it's kind of manufactured out with the roll-up sides I'll show you the side with quickly it's somebody else did that or you had the custom that we customized a little bit but it's mostly it comes like this ok this is really nice - so in the summer we're never gonna drop this but with small chicks in the winter it's a real easy way to really close down the coop just like night just like what is the importance of nice really but maybe more expensive equipment but it makes the process smoother we've always stood like are you gonna treat this as a hobby or give me a business if it's a business buy the right equipment do it the right way that's kind of how we approach it so it's better on the labor it's better on us it's definitely more efficient with results in way less mortality faster grow outs there's a better process overall so we're always looking at ways to invest in better equipment with it really come on boys there you go there you go come on these guys are big these guys are about ten weeks old right now so one more week and nobody ready to go started adding in sheep and we started adding in hogs and we found a partner farm to do some beef stuff with and you know now five years later we've got like twenty thousand chickens out on pasture or we're doing hundreds of orders every week with home delivery and it's just been like this what the heck just happened to take a step back and look at it now we would have never thought that it would be here if you told me I'd be farming six years ago coming out of the Marine Corps I would have laughed it would be like there's no way I don't know farming I've never done farming there's just no chance that would happen so what started as a hobby became a business and really became a passion for regenerative agriculture and now we're here today who knows where we'll be in five years but it's been a pretty fun ride for sure so these are non petroleum-based lawn mowing crew we use these to just graze off the fields in front of the chickens the chickens don't like the real tall grass so we try to get it down you know six to eight inches before the birds come through and then we do sell the pasture raised lamb - there's not a it's not a huge herd but we do sell whatever is produced out here cool program Dorper sheep really heat tolerant it's a meat breed so we're not shearing for they're not meant for wool or anything like that nice and the Lambs are just born right out here no assistance no barn year-round we keep a male in with them it's really really simple natural program yeah and has it beat out a petroleum lower at this point yeah don't have to sit on a track I don't think we even know we don't even own a tractor so there's a baby in there we should go we should go check that out you want to go see the baby mr. Brown come on let's go see the baby solar-powered electric fence charger works awesome Southern California where we got Sun 350 days a year yeah this just runs to a ground rod premier wall and electric fencing and that's what allows us to hurt them up and move them around every day nice this must be your mascot that's Mabel that's we got her for dairy but we haven't really done any dairy production yet so she's just the mascot they trampled her for now they were born two days ago little brothers over here you just let them do their own thing we don't touch him never been touched though there's no vaccine no antibiotic is just born here in the field we come out for chores and so cool there's lambs on the ground and that's yeah I mean that's all there is to it and when they're your mowers all that's just bonus it's just cream on the top exactly Simon baby's harvesting lamb yep the Dorper is a good breed it's a twin like 50% of the time and so they definitely reproduce pretty quick it's a really good meat lamb it's not good for wool at all but it's a good meat lamb especially for a warm climate I was a full-time CPA which is a pretty demanding job it was 80 90 hours a week commuting both ways you know still had my wife and have we had our baby and so it was like really busy and then my brother was a high school teacher too so he had a full-time job and that's what allowed us to start the farm I mean we had that off-farm income we didn't have to take a dollar of salary off the farm for like the first three years that's what really would allowed us to keep reinvesting every dollar that we made off and selling those chickens we put it back into the business and we kept growing it and growing it growing it it didn't have it didn't have the burden to pay us a living wage for a long time for us and for me especially my soul was just dying slowly in a cubicle I had to do something else I love this regenerative livestock agriculture and grass farming so there was no option I had to give try Paul this is where your are now and this is your finish good this is what it looks like when it arrives the customer yes so we've started doing this home delivery system we're just trying to make clean food really you know convenient for people because we found that farmers markets and trying to do all the stuff is difficult for working families sometimes so we're really working hard to put stuff on people's doorstep you know I'm glad you're shipping I know at first you hesitated to do that yeah because you want people to buy local and that's great but not everybody I've been traveling and there are many many food deserts all over they're not local all over the place and just because you have a farmers market doesn't mean it's real food that's there sometimes sure that's what caused us to start doing it too that's true we want to bring food to the people they can decide if they want to buy something local or not that's where we would love that but if you don't have it locally or if you want to buy from us where you know what's going on that's why we exist so yeah let's take a look at this box yes sir this is what we ordered yep let's see what Rebecca got so you can order anything from you then you don't it's not just like oh here's what you get this week no no we got this honey and we got some chicken thigh yeah yeah we love some chicken thighs anywhere that's so easy to make so healthy so all this is organic everything's a button you got bone broth and you got a whole bird oh man and you got this is a pork sausage so eat something where you getting your beef from beef all comes down to central California a little family farm of your workers but they're really awesome pasture for the ground oh this looks great man you got you got insulation here so much to what seven different states ship to seven states but pretty soon we'll be going everything west of Mississippi's we have your eyes on okay cool good job man good packaging so if somebody wants to know more about you or they want to order their own package where do they go this all the stuff is primal pastures calm so don't go on there check it out we've got all the car we've got subscription packages but everything in there certified organic soy free GMO free now pasture raised and pasture finished room and animals so it's all species-appropriate stuff it's the best that yeah I mean it's the best that you can get so it's the good stuff sake bugs not drugs hugs not drugs hey you sound great I tell your story [Music] [Applause] [Music] you [Applause] view all
     


     
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    I was so sick of my job as an accountant I was like I'm out of here I'm gonna make this chicken thing work one way or another but I got to get out of this cubicle this is horrible so I just left I moved in my why me my wife and my one-year-old son moved in with the in-laws for a period of time there was nine of us living in a 1,700 square foot house every single night my name is Paul grieve I'm one of the cofounders of primal pastures in the CEO at pasture bird how did this compare to your very first burger I mean you didn't know anything about raising chickens we did we didn't know a thing we read some Joel Salatin and we ended up putting a little hover brooder inside of a garage and we started with like 50 chicks so we wasn't anything special at all okay it was absolute chaos like mayhem we had HBO Showtime Animal Planet National jigger to come fill the documentary because it's like this madhouse of chaos at all times but you know that's what we had to do like we had to just cut back fall expenses rack up credit cards like the whole as entrepreneurs story I mean this is the same thing that happens in a lot of industries so for us and for me especially my soul [Applause] all right so in April 2012 I was finishing my time as an officer in the Marine Corps and had some health problems I had arthritis everything from my ankles my knees my back couldn't breathe through my nose low energy and at 22 years old I couldn't really figure out what my problem was I didn't know what's going on so my whole family went on this real food adventure we started learning about how food actually affects the way that you feel and your health and your vitality and everything so we started eating a paleo diet and we started feeling so much better like two weeks in felt like a kid again I could breathe through my nose I had all this extra energy it could move everything was totally different and my family had same experience so my father-in-law lost a hundred pounds my brothers both lost a bunch of weight and felt way better so is it is the hover brute or something that you bought no or don't we met you slept together we slapped it together but you've got a heat heat lamp yep you got a cardboard box it was actually made out of wood okay and we put some wood chips down and how'd you learn to do that much man I think it was a I think that was a Joel Salatin recommendation paltry profits so you went off the pasture poultry traffic that was the Bible for us for the first year so have you talked to Joel Salatin it's been pretty cool yeah every time I meet him we're a little farther along in the process I don't know if we produce the same amount or maybe a little more than him yeah at some point we're gonna be like they're gonna get more chickens and that's gonna do this be surreal well he served up the pastured poultry deal on a silver platter for us and we're just picking up where he's kind of leaving it we started really trying to buy good food for our family that's how this whole thing started from that experience we started learning more about grass-fed and free-range and cage-free and all this sort of idealistic meats and doing the research we learned that a lot of those things are full of it they're they're BS so we got really bummed out about the meat labeling industry and while we were looking at this thing we really just said we can't find what we want in the grocery store and that bothered us quite a bit so Paul how many problems did you have at those first you said 50 yeah it went fairly well to be honest we didn't have problems until a year in when we started getting massive predator losses so really probably six to nine months in we lost like 1300 chickens and 135 lambs and like we almost went out of business it was super bad it was horrible actually we started adding livestock Guardian dogs about a year in and that was the best decision we ever made I mean it single-handedly saved the business really yeah I mean have you lost since then zero we were asked a single animal to a predator since we added livestock - four years ago we may have lost chickens to our livestock Guardian dogs but we haven't lost it we have plastic as to predators so there they are right now there it is you're saying here this is one of them yeah well that's one of the pups is that a good one I couldn't tell you pretty good I guess good dog these are all the females up here so we run the females all together we went to brought all males last year otherwise a puppy City so yeah 13 14 left our Guardian dogs on 148 close right now so do you have the original dog here yeah Duke down on the lower pastor he's her who's her original guy okay and his brother JJ's in the middle and grandma is Jane the big long-haired Great Pyrenees original yeah so yes that's one of the originals yeah again special place in your heart for her this is Jane yeah well she's one of the she's one of the ones that actually has a name so she's gotta be somewhat special but uh yeah she was our first female she's grandma dog - a lot of these dogs at home and she's very she's a very important dog for us maybe she's brown doe I don't think they're actually that mad let's just do instinct latest park stuff away so they don't really fight that much with the Predators but they will intimidate the bar can they keep them away okay she doesn't like anybody coming up by her fence line barking go get it we don't do any training but you see all these female they're watching their grandma bark off these dogs so they're gonna learn what do you feed them they do get a couple like a grain but we try to give them as much raw food as we can so you can get if we have chick chickens the diet on the pasture or whatever just natural causes though those birds they get animal organ meats pork organ me to get beef organ meats but the raw thing we love we just don't have enough of it to feed them pure raw in April of 2012 we ordered 50 chicks and the way that that story goes we're sitting around joking as a family ha ha wouldn't it be funny to get some chickens and put them in the backyard my brother Rob but sitting there in the little circle of guys that was talking he walks away and he comes back like 10 minutes later and he goes oh hey I just ordered 50 chicks are gonna be here in two weeks and we're like you did what you know I we've never raised anything before we'd never had an agriculture background never really studied this stuff and so we got the birds put up a little brooder we put the birds outside on pasture we raised him without any vaccines or drugs or antibiotics and we gave them certified organic soy free food and I mean we didn't know what we were doing at all probably most farmers would have said you can't raise chickens outside they're gonna die they're gonna get sick this and that but we didn't know any better so we just raised him the way we want to eat them and to feed our family so this right here was your pasture poultry pen 2.0 exactly this 2.0 so we started with a normal wood Mountain pen with a pole rope on it and all that stuff we broke our back on that for a couple years and then we said let's put wheels on this thing let's make it out of metal especially since we irrigate they get wet all the time this was pretty well for us you can see how they cave in though don't build it with a flat roof you want to build it with a pitch roof so the water comes in it gets pretty heavy in there yeah like a net over the metal is much better yeah it's more expensive to build it I think we had almost a thousand bucks in each one of these but to me we can drive up we could push them with a Kubota Gator instead of having to pull them and it just saves your back is much better this way better this was a thousand bucks how long does it take to pay for it so well it depends what program you're running in it but if you figure you're making five bucks a bird and you can run you got 80 Birds in each one if you definitely paying for itself in less than a year oh sweet well you guys want to help me push this thing real quick all right let's do it we're gonna push really hard I don't know if we're gonna be able to do it or not city amenities every day these all move every single day we use a little Kubota Gator to push them forward okay okay 65 man Christmas morning these things are moving ready one two three go oh yeah and then all this feed that was spilled behind will have the pigs come through and clean that up so I'm just winging ways to you is that what the pigs are for and all even for something out there cleanup program and baking program I mean yeah they're uh they'll come through I clean up all this feed just for you guys or for the you show the bacon - oh yeah we sell the pork definitely once it's ready but this is a chicken farm that we use lives other livestock for other reasons bugs not drugs so we believe that chickens should have a natural diet grass bug seeds and worms moving over fresh pasture they don't need the drugs so it I've never used vaccines or antibiotics or drugs or you know feed additives or any of that stuff you don't need to those first 50 chicks back in 2012 there was a thing called Facebook that was really popular so we put those first 50 chicks we said uh if anybody wants a few of these you know here's a link you can put a deposit down and reserve one or two and we thought what will offset the cost of raising these for our family so two weeks go by the birds are like this big now and all 50 had been deposits collected paid in full like they were done it was a done deal which was so crazy to us because my family was all mad at me for selling all the chicken they thought they were gonna be eaten now Paul look at him come running to you Betty why they come and run into you well they used to get fed before they got here they don't get fed anymore but really yeah well they don't really what do they eat they eat the grass there's a Kunekune e grazing Pig this is the best backyard they don't like the electric fence much either so is the bass backyard taking a pig for backyard operation there will graze 100% grass they'll eat one veggie they don't root they won't destroy your pastures in these fields I think if you want y'all never mind they are if any of them know you tried to get in the big circle right now by the time we harvested the birds and harvesting was literally like an iphone here with YouTube on how to chicken processing from Joel Salatin in the bird like right here hanging in the tree so that's how we first started out but we harvested the birds we had a waiting list of like a hundred and ten families that all wanted you know real local pasture raised chicken and the next month we did a hundred Birds then a few months later we did 200 and then we did 400 and we did a thousand this is the original Paul King joke how are you King four oh he's just for you guys are just baby young Kings out here you guys are just five years old yeah this is just a little puppy come on now Paul this is just five years five years later man no way we're gonna go see what it looks like five years later and this is just gonna be a glimpse y'all yeah this is the smaller chicken farm but there's thirty chicken tractors and one of the big range coops and down in this field we have about 3,500 birds any given time and oh geez booting it friendly and this is important for us down in the desert as we do irrigated pastures down here so okay that will keep us on green grass year round we do 52 weeks out of the year we're producing birds which does help us because we don't have to lay people off and take time off we can really just keep it going it's good and bad a nine is five operation here yeah for sure it does help with wholesale and our other company pasture bird benefits from being able to do you know twelve months out of the year production so here you go this looks like it's just been moved recently you see the flies which are annoying but they help us break down the manure really really fast so they're gonna basically take it help us break it down yeah this just got moved to fresh pasture you can see we have pressurized water into this coop which is super nice so we're not tending water filling up water all the time that's just pressurized right into the coop on a loser and you look so you went from just a wooden pasture poaching pan meadow meadow pasture poultry pens to now this yes I mean you gotta hold them there well this will hold 500 and the freedom Rangers and now then these chickens look like you're almost ready to graduate they're ready to go yeah there in about eleventh grade here this is 500 Birds the first instinct people always say oh that's not very much room for 500 but we gotta remember is a square foot and a half for every bird that's moved every single day for 77 days so you really have over 100 square feet over the course of their life yeah we want to concentrate that manure and know exactly where it went down and get them off of that manure every single day yeah so that's what keeps us off the drug that's why we say bugs not drugs or and you watch them you know you see about 5% of them may be eating the feed ninety five percent are just out foraging green seeing fresh air sunshine this coop works really well for our environment out here and look they're acting like chickens yeah what do you know they're fighting they're walking around they're scratching they don't need to be dabiq they don't need to be be talon eyes they don't need to be vaccinated or antibiotic that I need drug or additives in the feed it's just really a truly a natural chicken a real program and it comes through in the flavor the health of the bird too so so we think the daily move is really important so they're actually on green grass every single day yeah if we left these guys for two or three days this would be a mud bath in here and there'd be no grass left all the bog all the good stuff about this would be gone so to us it's really important to be moving them all the time this is a really good set up to for range so we get some heavy rains through here in the winter time and this allows them to get out of the way if it's really wet in here they can get up and perch we can throw some straw and this system works really well for stuff like that too we hooked this up on misters 2 we don't need them right now it's not hot enough but if it goes over 100 this is useful because it'll bring the core temp it up of the entire thing got about 20 degrees just from running some water in here on mystery that works real well - is this made for this purpose or did you touch them it's just a normal greenhouse it's a high it's a high tunnel or whatever they call it but it's put on skids and it's kind of manufactured out with the roll-up sides I'll show you the side with quickly it's somebody else did that or you had the custom that we customized a little bit but it's mostly it comes like this ok this is really nice - so in the summer we're never gonna drop this but with small chicks in the winter it's a real easy way to really close down the coop just like night just like what is the importance of nice really but maybe more expensive equipment but it makes the process smoother we've always stood like are you gonna treat this as a hobby or give me a business if it's a business buy the right equipment do it the right way that's kind of how we approach it so it's better on the labor it's better on us it's definitely more efficient with results in way less mortality faster grow outs there's a better process overall so we're always looking at ways to invest in better equipment with it really come on boys there you go there you go come on these guys are big these guys are about ten weeks old right now so one more week and nobody ready to go started adding in sheep and we started adding in hogs and we found a partner farm to do some beef stuff with and you know now five years later we've got like twenty thousand chickens out on pasture or we're doing hundreds of orders every week with home delivery and it's just been like this what the heck just happened to take a step back and look at it now we would have never thought that it would be here if you told me I'd be farming six years ago coming out of the Marine Corps I would have laughed it would be like there's no way I don't know farming I've never done farming there's just no chance that would happen so what started as a hobby became a business and really became a passion for regenerative agriculture and now we're here today who knows where we'll be in five years but it's been a pretty fun ride for sure so these are non petroleum-based lawn mowing crew we use these to just graze off the fields in front of the chickens the chickens don't like the real tall grass so we try to get it down you know six to eight inches before the birds come through and then we do sell the pasture raised lamb - there's not a it's not a huge herd but we do sell whatever is produced out here cool program Dorper sheep really heat tolerant it's a meat breed so we're not shearing for they're not meant for wool or anything like that nice and the Lambs are just born right out here no assistance no barn year-round we keep a male in with them it's really really simple natural program yeah and has it beat out a petroleum lower at this point yeah don't have to sit on a track I don't think we even know we don't even own a tractor so there's a baby in there we should go we should go check that out you want to go see the baby mr. Brown come on let's go see the baby solar-powered electric fence charger works awesome Southern California where we got Sun 350 days a year yeah this just runs to a ground rod premier wall and electric fencing and that's what allows us to hurt them up and move them around every day nice this must be your mascot that's Mabel that's we got her for dairy but we haven't really done any dairy production yet so she's just the mascot they trampled her for now they were born two days ago little brothers over here you just let them do their own thing we don't touch him never been touched though there's no vaccine no antibiotic is just born here in the field we come out for chores and so cool there's lambs on the ground and that's yeah I mean that's all there is to it and when they're your mowers all that's just bonus it's just cream on the top exactly Simon baby's harvesting lamb yep the Dorper is a good breed it's a twin like 50% of the time and so they definitely reproduce pretty quick it's a really good meat lamb it's not good for wool at all but it's a good meat lamb especially for a warm climate I was a full-time CPA which is a pretty demanding job it was 80 90 hours a week commuting both ways you know still had my wife and have we had our baby and so it was like really busy and then my brother was a high school teacher too so he had a full-time job and that's what allowed us to start the farm I mean we had that off-farm income we didn't have to take a dollar of salary off the farm for like the first three years that's what really would allowed us to keep reinvesting every dollar that we made off and selling those chickens we put it back into the business and we kept growing it and growing it growing it it didn't have it didn't have the burden to pay us a living wage for a long time for us and for me especially my soul was just dying slowly in a cubicle I had to do something else I love this regenerative livestock agriculture and grass farming so there was no option I had to give try Paul this is where your are now and this is your finish good this is what it looks like when it arrives the customer yes so we've started doing this home delivery system we're just trying to make clean food really you know convenient for people because we found that farmers markets and trying to do all the stuff is difficult for working families sometimes so we're really working hard to put stuff on people's doorstep you know I'm glad you're shipping I know at first you hesitated to do that yeah because you want people to buy local and that's great but not everybody I've been traveling and there are many many food deserts all over they're not local all over the place and just because you have a farmers market doesn't mean it's real food that's there sometimes sure that's what caused us to start doing it too that's true we want to bring food to the people they can decide if they want to buy something local or not that's where we would love that but if you don't have it locally or if you want to buy from us where you know what's going on that's why we exist so yeah let's take a look at this box yes sir this is what we ordered yep let's see what Rebecca got so you can order anything from you then you don't it's not just like oh here's what you get this week no no we got this honey and we got some chicken thigh yeah yeah we love some chicken thighs anywhere that's so easy to make so healthy so all this is organic everything's a button you got bone broth and you got a whole bird oh man and you got this is a pork sausage so eat something where you getting your beef from beef all comes down to central California a little family farm of your workers but they're really awesome pasture for the ground oh this looks great man you got you got insulation here so much to what seven different states ship to seven states but pretty soon we'll be going everything west of Mississippi's we have your eyes on okay cool good job man good packaging so if somebody wants to know more about you or they want to order their own package where do they go this all the stuff is primal pastures calm so don't go on there check it out we've got all the car we've got subscription packages but everything in there certified organic soy free GMO free now pasture raised and pasture finished room and animals so it's all species-appropriate stuff it's the best that yeah I mean it's the best that you can get so it's the good stuff sake bugs not drugs hugs not drugs hey you sound great I tell your story [Music] [Applause] [Music] you [Applause]

    163
    Views

    Reap show us what’s up with their backyard milk goats in the Arizona desert.

    Daily LifeJustin Rhodes Published the article • 0 comments • 163 views • 2017-10-31 16:39 • came from similar tags

     

     
     
    subtitle:


    there you go Arizona alright here we go Grand Canyon State now it has to be perfect ice can you believe it you gots been to Arizona but under the dude I love the Hawaii shirt I love the Hawaii dress I love the Hawaiian t-shirt you guys are doing great and a good spirit I'm feeling pretty good look at this place we're getting there guys we're getting there fall cleaning is coming along okay you guys ready to have breakfast over here you guys and your kids want milk this is like it's really mild so it's not like regular goat's milk that you find yeah is it that time you in charge of milking this morning yeah you don't help the medicine go down okay good okay I see you're coming to do business you got your filing cabinet okay we always see the filing there you are Josh she's big this old happy huh oh yeah - jinx enough this morning know what motivates you to do this for the first time they got us do it they told us we'd go to Disneyland it we just kept doing it yeah it sounds like you and Ethan need to go on strike yes make a sign refuse the milk Disneyland or but okay despite not giving a retreat I see how you treat your workers kind of like your parents today we're gonna take you to Disneyland and then you're not feeling that poor note it's not do you guys know the basics of nothing squeezing the teat and stuff I don't have ma'am this backbone doesn't have as much grip but you could still get some out of it if you tried keep going keep going at that one there you go cows they kind of they kind of pull down a little bit and kind of kind of pinch it out but with goats because the teats are sure you really pinch the teat first and then do the rest of the squeezing so you're kind of blocking off the milk and then squeezing it out is it time is it time to go strain that that's it right into your jar technically you can drink that right now yeah and you know where this is weird like at the end of our milking cycle you know we're pretty low on milk right now normally we're producing you know at least a half gallon a day Didion yes how does it feel to have a garden and goats in your backyard do all your friends have gardens and farms in their backyard no what do they think of you I don't really honestly they probably just become cool because kind of like a Mary Poppins type of character yes okay you're the Mary Poppins in your good friend circle yes thank you oh he's serious he's broke out to Wilbur what are you gonna do that Wilbur Kevin we are gonna get some good oil Wow I'd say so you alternate these goats between these two pins yeah this this maneuver is a little bit more broken down yeah are you gonna are you going to strain that out you browsing for them now huh well they love you so this playground for you or for them so all the other goats are fat and don't like to move much doing it oh there she is now oh here you go does she go down the slide that's for you yeah oh that's for Kevin yeah Kevin this slide is for you Kevin what's this the pomelo tree oh I would have never guessed that it's like a sweet grapefruit it's really really good all right so we're gonna try to plant some Einhorn wheat cool so you guys know what iron core is and that's kind of like an ancient we it's supposed to be I don't really eat gluten but my family does and it's supposed to be an easier to digest yeah so I thought what the heck cool let's try to grow it because I'm all about experimenting tiny stuff you see this guy yeah this one's the active one if they break really easy then then you're in good shape and it's a real farmer right there sifting through the manure you're getting it your SEP you're getting the dry stuff you're keeping the dry stuff Kevin do your friends think you're nuts my friends I don't really have any friends come on good Kevin some somebody give Kevin a like here let's give Kevin some friends guys I play bad ran them off guys I played basketball with don't really know what he doesn't talk about it at basketball camp huh you go play b-ball yeah cool what do they like to talk about boring stuff like we're boo you don't even know what real life is they don't like to talk about sifting through your goat manure no to squeeze it to see if it's dry and ready for the gardener now that I like to talk about that straight-up say that dirt and manure together because she doesn't trust us there's been a couple of times when we left this open and the goats have gotten in now we know why Disneyland got taken away now we know why Disneyland the truth is coming out you're still paying for that aren't you Oh even eat that says yeah who knows how long how long have you guys been having a garden and goats I think we made it like 1 or 2 years after we got here around just like seven or eight years can you remember not having no no again I can't remember coming out here and not having a garden ok do you do do your friends have a garden I have like one or two friends who have garden but not really what do those two friends that do you have a garden have a goat they have like rabbit two things but not so what did they think about you in your gardening goat in your backyard they're always like wow you have goats and stuff I used to have goats but now I don't because I don't like them nice okay so you're all right they get you yeah what's your favorite thing about having gardening goats or just all the experience I get from it what kind of experience oh I just I get to say oh I have a garden and I hope coats and you think you'll have a garden and go when you pretty high chance that I will [Music] and all my research at which I've done none I think we just throw them in the dirt don't know from what I understand it's pretty easy to sprout so we're going to we're not gonna like stick our finger in and do holes we're just gonna kind of spread it across and this is your first time okay and then let's let's sprinkle it and then I'll kind of cover it with that dirt that I pulled back we're gonna see how it sprouts we're gonna just try it out here you can study and research all day you know you can just go out a little bit there you go a tiny little Hannah [Music] what about your friends duh now did they think you're crazy well my family definitely thought I was crazy because I was not raised with goats or chickens or anything but you know you find your little tribe wherever you live you find you your group of crazy bull which will meet tomorrow yeah the crazy people grown their food in the desert here yeah but there's something really fun about just doing it even despite the failures it's it's really enjoyable come on you're talking about failures but I'm looking around and seeing nothing but success beautiful garden yeah that's beautiful kids working working every morning to try to eat some of our plan come on now it's a glass half empty or half full come on no it's fun and we do have some we do have success too but I think it's like embracing not being afraid of familiar that's a big part of it [Music] Jahna blogging where's this vlog at this is wiedemann reap on youtube didn't l Wolford okay you guys want more of her check that out hey kids was it good to get your hands dirty again come on now was it good to get your hands dirty again okay good if you guys are interested in more do-it-yourself type of stuff with goats like what you need how to get it going where do you get the ghost that type of stuff we talked more with denilla about that and i put it in my member area I might do it yourself about its member area and right now you can try that for just a dollar you can try it for a week for a dollar I think we're on like 50 videos or something like that and then you can be done or you can continue on and opt-in monthly so check that out I'll leave the link to that down in the description tomorrow we're gonna explore this more we're gonna get more of the Nell story we're gonna talk about what you can do in the desert on one acre it's absolutely amazing this one acre farm in suburbia we're gonna tell that story we also got a meet-up it should be a lot of fun


      view all
     


     
     
    subtitle:


    there you go Arizona alright here we go Grand Canyon State now it has to be perfect ice can you believe it you gots been to Arizona but under the dude I love the Hawaii shirt I love the Hawaii dress I love the Hawaiian t-shirt you guys are doing great and a good spirit I'm feeling pretty good look at this place we're getting there guys we're getting there fall cleaning is coming along okay you guys ready to have breakfast over here you guys and your kids want milk this is like it's really mild so it's not like regular goat's milk that you find yeah is it that time you in charge of milking this morning yeah you don't help the medicine go down okay good okay I see you're coming to do business you got your filing cabinet okay we always see the filing there you are Josh she's big this old happy huh oh yeah - jinx enough this morning know what motivates you to do this for the first time they got us do it they told us we'd go to Disneyland it we just kept doing it yeah it sounds like you and Ethan need to go on strike yes make a sign refuse the milk Disneyland or but okay despite not giving a retreat I see how you treat your workers kind of like your parents today we're gonna take you to Disneyland and then you're not feeling that poor note it's not do you guys know the basics of nothing squeezing the teat and stuff I don't have ma'am this backbone doesn't have as much grip but you could still get some out of it if you tried keep going keep going at that one there you go cows they kind of they kind of pull down a little bit and kind of kind of pinch it out but with goats because the teats are sure you really pinch the teat first and then do the rest of the squeezing so you're kind of blocking off the milk and then squeezing it out is it time is it time to go strain that that's it right into your jar technically you can drink that right now yeah and you know where this is weird like at the end of our milking cycle you know we're pretty low on milk right now normally we're producing you know at least a half gallon a day Didion yes how does it feel to have a garden and goats in your backyard do all your friends have gardens and farms in their backyard no what do they think of you I don't really honestly they probably just become cool because kind of like a Mary Poppins type of character yes okay you're the Mary Poppins in your good friend circle yes thank you oh he's serious he's broke out to Wilbur what are you gonna do that Wilbur Kevin we are gonna get some good oil Wow I'd say so you alternate these goats between these two pins yeah this this maneuver is a little bit more broken down yeah are you gonna are you going to strain that out you browsing for them now huh well they love you so this playground for you or for them so all the other goats are fat and don't like to move much doing it oh there she is now oh here you go does she go down the slide that's for you yeah oh that's for Kevin yeah Kevin this slide is for you Kevin what's this the pomelo tree oh I would have never guessed that it's like a sweet grapefruit it's really really good all right so we're gonna try to plant some Einhorn wheat cool so you guys know what iron core is and that's kind of like an ancient we it's supposed to be I don't really eat gluten but my family does and it's supposed to be an easier to digest yeah so I thought what the heck cool let's try to grow it because I'm all about experimenting tiny stuff you see this guy yeah this one's the active one if they break really easy then then you're in good shape and it's a real farmer right there sifting through the manure you're getting it your SEP you're getting the dry stuff you're keeping the dry stuff Kevin do your friends think you're nuts my friends I don't really have any friends come on good Kevin some somebody give Kevin a like here let's give Kevin some friends guys I play bad ran them off guys I played basketball with don't really know what he doesn't talk about it at basketball camp huh you go play b-ball yeah cool what do they like to talk about boring stuff like we're boo you don't even know what real life is they don't like to talk about sifting through your goat manure no to squeeze it to see if it's dry and ready for the gardener now that I like to talk about that straight-up say that dirt and manure together because she doesn't trust us there's been a couple of times when we left this open and the goats have gotten in now we know why Disneyland got taken away now we know why Disneyland the truth is coming out you're still paying for that aren't you Oh even eat that says yeah who knows how long how long have you guys been having a garden and goats I think we made it like 1 or 2 years after we got here around just like seven or eight years can you remember not having no no again I can't remember coming out here and not having a garden ok do you do do your friends have a garden I have like one or two friends who have garden but not really what do those two friends that do you have a garden have a goat they have like rabbit two things but not so what did they think about you in your gardening goat in your backyard they're always like wow you have goats and stuff I used to have goats but now I don't because I don't like them nice okay so you're all right they get you yeah what's your favorite thing about having gardening goats or just all the experience I get from it what kind of experience oh I just I get to say oh I have a garden and I hope coats and you think you'll have a garden and go when you pretty high chance that I will [Music] and all my research at which I've done none I think we just throw them in the dirt don't know from what I understand it's pretty easy to sprout so we're going to we're not gonna like stick our finger in and do holes we're just gonna kind of spread it across and this is your first time okay and then let's let's sprinkle it and then I'll kind of cover it with that dirt that I pulled back we're gonna see how it sprouts we're gonna just try it out here you can study and research all day you know you can just go out a little bit there you go a tiny little Hannah [Music] what about your friends duh now did they think you're crazy well my family definitely thought I was crazy because I was not raised with goats or chickens or anything but you know you find your little tribe wherever you live you find you your group of crazy bull which will meet tomorrow yeah the crazy people grown their food in the desert here yeah but there's something really fun about just doing it even despite the failures it's it's really enjoyable come on you're talking about failures but I'm looking around and seeing nothing but success beautiful garden yeah that's beautiful kids working working every morning to try to eat some of our plan come on now it's a glass half empty or half full come on no it's fun and we do have some we do have success too but I think it's like embracing not being afraid of familiar that's a big part of it [Music] Jahna blogging where's this vlog at this is wiedemann reap on youtube didn't l Wolford okay you guys want more of her check that out hey kids was it good to get your hands dirty again come on now was it good to get your hands dirty again okay good if you guys are interested in more do-it-yourself type of stuff with goats like what you need how to get it going where do you get the ghost that type of stuff we talked more with denilla about that and i put it in my member area I might do it yourself about its member area and right now you can try that for just a dollar you can try it for a week for a dollar I think we're on like 50 videos or something like that and then you can be done or you can continue on and opt-in monthly so check that out I'll leave the link to that down in the description tomorrow we're gonna explore this more we're gonna get more of the Nell story we're gonna talk about what you can do in the desert on one acre it's absolutely amazing this one acre farm in suburbia we're gonna tell that story we also got a meet-up it should be a lot of fun


     
    213
    Views

    DaNelle, of Weed Em and Reap shows what’s possible on just ONE acre in the middle of suburbia Arizona. Goats, sheep, gardens and a budding food forest.

    Daily LifeJustin Rhodes Published the article • 0 comments • 213 views • 2017-10-31 16:39 • came from similar tags

     
     

     
     
    subtitle:


    we were driving through Phoenix Arizona on our great American Farm to her it's like so many cities in America full of traffic huge lots of people little area and then we get to the sort of that outside of Phoenix didn't we pull into the neighborhood were to go to and feature on this tour and I'm looking around and thinking hey this looks really nice I'm totally surprised she's allowed to have goats chickens basically a micro farm here in this very nice neighborhood and then I saw four cows fuck this must be the coolest neighborhood in the world and then we got two dead now [Music] what we're trying to do here on an acre is everything you would do on a big scale just miniaturized so we knew that we had this front yard space in suburbia you'll have big front yards that are just have inedible plants and maybe even rock here in the desert but we wanted as many trees in the front yard as we could so this is kind of a couple years of work here for us we still earned and still growing but we've got I think in the front yards got 20 fruit trees and then we've got 10 more in the back but yeah it's pretty exciting stuff to kind of change your front yard into more of a food forest about 10 years ago I was dealing with a bunch of health problems and then my son Ethan we found out he had asthma and so we felt like a wreck you know we just weren't we weren't really living our life's potential and so we got into eating healthier that was kind of the the first starting point towards hey maybe we should grow our own food let's just go let's go to the garden it's exciting because like there's something I mean you can just put an animal in your yard and there's some fulfillment from that but being able to like grow your own food that's huge you know that's like that's like the ultimate man put a seed in the ground actually grow something edible that's pretty cool all right so this is really fun because this is our this is this year's new adventure we actually watched your video with the JM Fortier Market Garden and I've already I've also I've kind of always known about the whole wood ship back to eatin method but I people don't really do that here because we have really invasive grass so a lot of people hate to plant and ground because it'll just become covered with grass so I thought hey let's just combine both of those methods and it's so far done really great so I think as we keep going though you know you know how doesn't gardening soil will just keep getting better so yeah it's been really fun to try this out we knew we were gonna garden in this area so we put the goats chickens everything in here for a good six months let him just kill the Bermuda you don't kill the grass and stomp it down poop on it and all that stuff so they really prepped it for us we just had to come in and build the rows we started to look around our area you know here in Arizona where could we find a place that would be affordable that could you know we could grow our own food and so we searched and searched and we found the perfect piece of junk house but it was on an acre and it had mature gorgeous trees and we thought like this is it we're gonna we're gonna do this so we moved here and we started with the whole few chickens and a goat and then I learned you have to have to go throats one go just cries and screams old times and we just slowly started getting deeper and deeper into growing our own food and so now what are these restraining cunts doing in the middle of Suburbia don't tell me you're processing your own chickens here usually every other year will raise a bunch of chickens and then put them up in our freezer and so these are these are killing cones here for when we need to put you our chickens it's a it's interesting to do it in suburbia people don't expect you to be doing that but the neighbors peeking over the fence yeah oh yeah gonna say no they don't set I think people are pretty down-to-earth here they they come from families that used to farm so but it's just a generational gap they haven't really done it themselves it's been awesome I mean now we have you know goats that we milk and we raise our own meat and we raise our own we have our own eggs and then we have fruits and vegetables and this yesterday we tried to plant our first grain all right well welcome to our pasture no this is um since our whole area is an acre this is about a half acre and it is enough least we know it's enough to raise two Lambs every year the goats get kind of supplemented so we're not sure if they would really totally survive on this but it's it's perfect amount for us for a family for but it's not without its struggles we one of the biggest challenges of growing here is the heat so while we can grow year-round part of that year is pretty tough so there's a few things that we do here if you're gardening here in Arizona you know that you're doing a deep mulch system you have to so people have got anywhere from six inches to a foot of mulch over their gardens to help retain moisture another trick is we use a lot of coconut coir to help retain moisture in our if we're doing any kind of above-ground beds but then we'll also string up these shade cloths over our garden to just help help us be able to grow anything during July and August here so that's kind of a struggle and there are other little struggles here and there especially growing on a small area you know we live in town so we have some restrictions you know we can't have more than you know 50 chickens or more than eight goats stuff like that now we've not seen this on a tour a big concrete ditch going through somebody's yard what's up with that yeah so this is arizona's irrigation system and the Hohokam Indians actually built this years ago and then the people that settled this area I just kind of continued with it so what this does is it brings water it's just a full gravity system reading the water from the lake down to all the homes that's it yeah and we just let the water in when it's our time come through it's a few hours this whole place will be flooded all right irrigation son oh man I was gonna come in and swim in it at the edge get cooler Oh oh my gosh oh good in the shade you know you guys used to play in this irrigation every two weeks now you're too old oh so sad and then he sticks it in there and so then we stop it this stops it from going in our yard but then lets it continue on so now he's gonna lift this up go away it goes all the way down yay so that's it we've got the whole backyard like this we want lots of shade here shade is everything here in Arizona and so when we built this area we actually to take a tree down which was a big bummer for us because it's just it's something like 20 degrees cooler you know under shade so we instead planets and new trees but of course the goats are going to destroy them so we made this little pallet wall around it works pretty good all right so we usually don't have predators here but there are some hawks that will get our chickens early in the morning or maybe an owl so we do lock them up at night and then every morning hey Jess come on we just love the little goats we think they're perfect for a small setting like this we love the mills we love their personalities so so this is primarily our just our pride and joy we love them because they're really good stock really good registration and breed and and lines and so we're excited about the potential with them we are phasing out our Nubian and so we're just we're just excited we love these little mini milkers so the best and we have one do actually this little one this fat one in the back she's due in a couple of weeks here you see we have this shade because the Sun will come in right here and during the summer it's just brutal but yeah just our little area that we bring our goats up and milk and it's just kind of perfect cuz it's like middle ground you know we walked just steps from our backyard get the milk left the mountain the pasture it's perfect these are my tropical trees now this has been really fun because we live in the desert and you would think that we couldn't grow tropical trees here but you actually can we have avocados mangos and bananas right now and then we'll probably add more we have a loquat that's a little bit subtropical but yeah it's it's cool it's it's interesting because as you start to get into like planting trees you'll notice that there are different microclimates within your climate so this area back here where we have these gorgeous huge 30 year old shade trees combined with the irrigation that comes through creates sort of this it's like really really cool spot like temperature-wise very very cool and so it's perfect for growing these kind of trees here and they thrive so it's kind of fun to be doing that here in the desert in the future what we want to do is just do things better and become more of a master at gardening and the next big adventure we're going to do is we're hoping to build a natural pond on our property so that we can raise our own fish as well so the goal is to just round it all out and have every little bit of what you'd find on a big farm right here in the city so the the rumor is the the legend is that a cowboy was traveling from Mexico and he dropped an avocado pit and the avocado for some reason grew on its own without any nurturing and it's a massive 100 year old you know 50 foot high avocado tree in the middle of the desert and so people go to like tour it and look at it and stuff and so they allowed people to take cuttings they allow Sheamus to take cuttings and he started dispersing them to people in the valley and so now there are lots of people here growing what they call the Arizona avocado view all
     
     


     
     
    subtitle:


    we were driving through Phoenix Arizona on our great American Farm to her it's like so many cities in America full of traffic huge lots of people little area and then we get to the sort of that outside of Phoenix didn't we pull into the neighborhood were to go to and feature on this tour and I'm looking around and thinking hey this looks really nice I'm totally surprised she's allowed to have goats chickens basically a micro farm here in this very nice neighborhood and then I saw four cows fuck this must be the coolest neighborhood in the world and then we got two dead now [Music] what we're trying to do here on an acre is everything you would do on a big scale just miniaturized so we knew that we had this front yard space in suburbia you'll have big front yards that are just have inedible plants and maybe even rock here in the desert but we wanted as many trees in the front yard as we could so this is kind of a couple years of work here for us we still earned and still growing but we've got I think in the front yards got 20 fruit trees and then we've got 10 more in the back but yeah it's pretty exciting stuff to kind of change your front yard into more of a food forest about 10 years ago I was dealing with a bunch of health problems and then my son Ethan we found out he had asthma and so we felt like a wreck you know we just weren't we weren't really living our life's potential and so we got into eating healthier that was kind of the the first starting point towards hey maybe we should grow our own food let's just go let's go to the garden it's exciting because like there's something I mean you can just put an animal in your yard and there's some fulfillment from that but being able to like grow your own food that's huge you know that's like that's like the ultimate man put a seed in the ground actually grow something edible that's pretty cool all right so this is really fun because this is our this is this year's new adventure we actually watched your video with the JM Fortier Market Garden and I've already I've also I've kind of always known about the whole wood ship back to eatin method but I people don't really do that here because we have really invasive grass so a lot of people hate to plant and ground because it'll just become covered with grass so I thought hey let's just combine both of those methods and it's so far done really great so I think as we keep going though you know you know how doesn't gardening soil will just keep getting better so yeah it's been really fun to try this out we knew we were gonna garden in this area so we put the goats chickens everything in here for a good six months let him just kill the Bermuda you don't kill the grass and stomp it down poop on it and all that stuff so they really prepped it for us we just had to come in and build the rows we started to look around our area you know here in Arizona where could we find a place that would be affordable that could you know we could grow our own food and so we searched and searched and we found the perfect piece of junk house but it was on an acre and it had mature gorgeous trees and we thought like this is it we're gonna we're gonna do this so we moved here and we started with the whole few chickens and a goat and then I learned you have to have to go throats one go just cries and screams old times and we just slowly started getting deeper and deeper into growing our own food and so now what are these restraining cunts doing in the middle of Suburbia don't tell me you're processing your own chickens here usually every other year will raise a bunch of chickens and then put them up in our freezer and so these are these are killing cones here for when we need to put you our chickens it's a it's interesting to do it in suburbia people don't expect you to be doing that but the neighbors peeking over the fence yeah oh yeah gonna say no they don't set I think people are pretty down-to-earth here they they come from families that used to farm so but it's just a generational gap they haven't really done it themselves it's been awesome I mean now we have you know goats that we milk and we raise our own meat and we raise our own we have our own eggs and then we have fruits and vegetables and this yesterday we tried to plant our first grain all right well welcome to our pasture no this is um since our whole area is an acre this is about a half acre and it is enough least we know it's enough to raise two Lambs every year the goats get kind of supplemented so we're not sure if they would really totally survive on this but it's it's perfect amount for us for a family for but it's not without its struggles we one of the biggest challenges of growing here is the heat so while we can grow year-round part of that year is pretty tough so there's a few things that we do here if you're gardening here in Arizona you know that you're doing a deep mulch system you have to so people have got anywhere from six inches to a foot of mulch over their gardens to help retain moisture another trick is we use a lot of coconut coir to help retain moisture in our if we're doing any kind of above-ground beds but then we'll also string up these shade cloths over our garden to just help help us be able to grow anything during July and August here so that's kind of a struggle and there are other little struggles here and there especially growing on a small area you know we live in town so we have some restrictions you know we can't have more than you know 50 chickens or more than eight goats stuff like that now we've not seen this on a tour a big concrete ditch going through somebody's yard what's up with that yeah so this is arizona's irrigation system and the Hohokam Indians actually built this years ago and then the people that settled this area I just kind of continued with it so what this does is it brings water it's just a full gravity system reading the water from the lake down to all the homes that's it yeah and we just let the water in when it's our time come through it's a few hours this whole place will be flooded all right irrigation son oh man I was gonna come in and swim in it at the edge get cooler Oh oh my gosh oh good in the shade you know you guys used to play in this irrigation every two weeks now you're too old oh so sad and then he sticks it in there and so then we stop it this stops it from going in our yard but then lets it continue on so now he's gonna lift this up go away it goes all the way down yay so that's it we've got the whole backyard like this we want lots of shade here shade is everything here in Arizona and so when we built this area we actually to take a tree down which was a big bummer for us because it's just it's something like 20 degrees cooler you know under shade so we instead planets and new trees but of course the goats are going to destroy them so we made this little pallet wall around it works pretty good all right so we usually don't have predators here but there are some hawks that will get our chickens early in the morning or maybe an owl so we do lock them up at night and then every morning hey Jess come on we just love the little goats we think they're perfect for a small setting like this we love the mills we love their personalities so so this is primarily our just our pride and joy we love them because they're really good stock really good registration and breed and and lines and so we're excited about the potential with them we are phasing out our Nubian and so we're just we're just excited we love these little mini milkers so the best and we have one do actually this little one this fat one in the back she's due in a couple of weeks here you see we have this shade because the Sun will come in right here and during the summer it's just brutal but yeah just our little area that we bring our goats up and milk and it's just kind of perfect cuz it's like middle ground you know we walked just steps from our backyard get the milk left the mountain the pasture it's perfect these are my tropical trees now this has been really fun because we live in the desert and you would think that we couldn't grow tropical trees here but you actually can we have avocados mangos and bananas right now and then we'll probably add more we have a loquat that's a little bit subtropical but yeah it's it's cool it's it's interesting because as you start to get into like planting trees you'll notice that there are different microclimates within your climate so this area back here where we have these gorgeous huge 30 year old shade trees combined with the irrigation that comes through creates sort of this it's like really really cool spot like temperature-wise very very cool and so it's perfect for growing these kind of trees here and they thrive so it's kind of fun to be doing that here in the desert in the future what we want to do is just do things better and become more of a master at gardening and the next big adventure we're going to do is we're hoping to build a natural pond on our property so that we can raise our own fish as well so the goal is to just round it all out and have every little bit of what you'd find on a big farm right here in the city so the the rumor is the the legend is that a cowboy was traveling from Mexico and he dropped an avocado pit and the avocado for some reason grew on its own without any nurturing and it's a massive 100 year old you know 50 foot high avocado tree in the middle of the desert and so people go to like tour it and look at it and stuff and so they allowed people to take cuttings they allow Sheamus to take cuttings and he started dispersing them to people in the valley and so now there are lots of people here growing what they call the Arizona avocado

    167
    Views

    The specific directions for drying each vegetable step by step

    ExperienceIsidore Published the article • 0 comments • 167 views • 2017-10-30 17:39 • came from similar tags

    Select vegetables that are freshly picked, tender, and just mature enough to eat.Set out all ingredients and equipment. Wash and dry all utensils, counter tops, working surfaces, and your hands.Preheat your conventional oven to 140°F, or follow the manufacturer's directions for your electric dryer or dehydrator, or a convection or microwave oven.Wash the vegetables thoroughly, scrubbing with a brush if necessary, but handling them gently to avoid bruising.Cut, slice, or grate the food according to the recipe directions.Blanch the vegetables in small amounts at a time, according to recipe directions. For steam blanching, fill the blancher with just enough water to cover the bottom, but not to touch the basket or rack. For blanching by boiling, fill
    the blancher about half full, then begin heating. After blanching, chill the vegetable pieces in ice water for the same amount of time the recipe gives for blanching in boiling water. 
         7.Drain the chilled vegetables well, blot them dry, then spread them in a single, even layer on cookie sheets or on the racks of an electric dryer. Don't crowd the vegetables on the sheet and don't prepare more vegetables than you can dry at one time.
         8.For conventional oven drying, put an oven thermometer toward the back of the tray. Put the tray on the top shelf in a preheated oven, and maintain an oven temperature of 140°F.
         9.For box drying, turn on the light bulb for 10 to 15 minutes to preheat the box. Place the tray on top of the box.
         10.For convection oven drying, place the racks
    full of food into a cold oven. Set the temperature at 150°F. Open the oven door 1 to VA inches. Set the oven timer to the "stay on" position, or for as long as it will run, resetting as needed.

    11. For drying in an electric dryer or dehydrator. or a microwave or convection oven, follow the manufacturer's directions.
     
    12. For both oven and box drying, check the trays often, and stir the vegetables on the trays, moving the outside pieces to the center. For oven drying, turn the tray from front to back and — if drying more than 1 tray — change the trays from shelf to shelf for even drying. Check the trays more frequently during the last few hours of drying to prevent ' scorching. For microwave oven drying, follow the manufacturer's directions. Use the lower end of drying times given in the recipes as a guide for doneness when you're using a conventional, microwave, or convection oven. The upper range of drying times is a guide to doneness when you're using an electric dryer or dehydrator. 
     
     13.To test for doneness, remove sample pieces, cool, and then follow the recipe directions for testing for doneness. When the vegetables are completely dry, as described in each recipe, remove them from the oven or box and let stand until cooled. Test the vegetables again after cooling. If the food still shows some moisture, return it to the oven or dryer until completely dried. 
     
    14.Turn the dried vegetables into a deep container, cover lightly with cheesecloth, and condition, stirring once a day for a week to 10 days. 
     
    15. Pack into vapor/moistureproof, airtight containers or double plastic bags and store in a cool, dark, dry place for up to 12 months. 
     
    16.To rehydrate, put the vegetables in a pan or bowl, and add just enough boiling water to cover — usually 2 cups of water per cup of dried vegetables, anywhere from 1/2 hour to several hours, depending on the vegetable. 
     
    17.Cook vegetables in their soaking water until tender, or drain and add to recipes just as you would fresh vegetables. 
     
     
    The recipes that follow give you specific directions for drying each vegetable. To prevent problems, keep these basic steps in mind when home drying foods. Remember that only the highest quality vegetables are suitable for drying.  view all
    1. Select vegetables that are freshly picked, tender, and just mature enough to eat.
    2. Set out all ingredients and equipment. Wash and dry all utensils, counter tops, working surfaces, and your hands.
    3. Preheat your conventional oven to 140°F, or follow the manufacturer's directions for your electric dryer or dehydrator, or a convection or microwave oven.
    4. Wash the vegetables thoroughly, scrubbing with a brush if necessary, but handling them gently to avoid bruising.
    5. Cut, slice, or grate the food according to the recipe directions.
    6. Blanch the vegetables in small amounts at a time, according to recipe directions. For steam blanching, fill the blancher with just enough water to cover the bottom, but not to touch the basket or rack. For blanching by boiling, fill

    the blancher about half full, then begin heating. After blanching, chill the vegetable pieces in ice water for the same amount of time the recipe gives for blanching in boiling water. 
         7.Drain the chilled vegetables well, blot them dry, then spread them in a single, even layer on cookie sheets or on the racks of an electric dryer. Don't crowd the vegetables on the sheet and don't prepare more vegetables than you can dry at one time.
         8.For conventional oven drying, put an oven thermometer toward the back of the tray. Put the tray on the top shelf in a preheated oven, and maintain an oven temperature of 140°F.
         9.For box drying, turn on the light bulb for 10 to 15 minutes to preheat the box. Place the tray on top of the box.
         10.For convection oven drying, place the racks
    full of food into a cold oven. Set the temperature at 150°F. Open the oven door 1 to VA inches. Set the oven timer to the "stay on" position, or for as long as it will run, resetting as needed.

    11. For drying in an electric dryer or dehydrator. or a microwave or convection oven, follow the manufacturer's directions.
     
    12. For both oven and box drying, check the trays often, and stir the vegetables on the trays, moving the outside pieces to the center. For oven drying, turn the tray from front to back and — if drying more than 1 tray — change the trays from shelf to shelf for even drying. Check the trays more frequently during the last few hours of drying to prevent ' scorching. For microwave oven drying, follow the manufacturer's directions. Use the lower end of drying times given in the recipes as a guide for doneness when you're using a conventional, microwave, or convection oven. The upper range of drying times is a guide to doneness when you're using an electric dryer or dehydrator. 
     
     13.To test for doneness, remove sample pieces, cool, and then follow the recipe directions for testing for doneness. When the vegetables are completely dry, as described in each recipe, remove them from the oven or box and let stand until cooled. Test the vegetables again after cooling. If the food still shows some moisture, return it to the oven or dryer until completely dried. 
     
    14.Turn the dried vegetables into a deep container, cover lightly with cheesecloth, and condition, stirring once a day for a week to 10 days. 
     
    15. Pack into vapor/moistureproof, airtight containers or double plastic bags and store in a cool, dark, dry place for up to 12 months. 
     
    16.To rehydrate, put the vegetables in a pan or bowl, and add just enough boiling water to cover — usually 2 cups of water per cup of dried vegetables, anywhere from 1/2 hour to several hours, depending on the vegetable. 
     
    17.Cook vegetables in their soaking water until tender, or drain and add to recipes just as you would fresh vegetables. 
     
     
    The recipes that follow give you specific directions for drying each vegetable. To prevent problems, keep these basic steps in mind when home drying foods. Remember that only the highest quality vegetables are suitable for drying. 
    129
    Views

    How to dry vegetables

    ExperienceIsidore Published the article • 0 comments • 129 views • 2017-10-30 17:39 • came from similar tags

    Drying is probably the oldest method of food preservation. Though canned and frozen foods have taken over the major role once played by dried foods, drying is still cheaper and easier by comparison. Some other advantages of dried foods are that they take up less storage space and will keep well for a long time — up to 12 months — if
    prepared and stored properly. Unlike frozen foods, they are not dependent on a power source. Though you may find canned and frozen vegetables are closer in taste and appearance to fresh food, you'll like having a stock of dried vegetables on hand to add variety and special flavor to meals. 
     
    STOPPING THE SPOILERS

    Drying preserves vegetables by removing moisture, thus cutting off the water supply that would nourish food spoilers like bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The moisture content drops so low that spoilage organisms can't grow.
    Although there's a definite technique to drying vegetables, it isn't quite as precise as the procedures used for freezing or canning. Unless you'll be using an electric food dryer, you'll have to use trial and error to find the best way to maintain the proper oven temperature throughout the drying process and to provide good ventilation so moisture from the food can escape. Drying times are given in the recipes for the individual vegetables, but these times are only approximate. Every oven is different, and drying times also depend on how many vegetables you're drying at once, how thinly they've been sliced, and how steady you've kept the heat. So you'll have to experiment at first with drying times. Experience is the best teacher when it comes to judging when your vegetables are dry enough to keep the spoilers from contaminating them.

    Vegetables for drying

    There are a great many vegetables you can dry at home for use in perking up your salads, soups, stews, and casseroles. Good vegetables to dry include green beans, corn, peas, peppers, okra, onions, mushrooms, tomatoes, and summer squash.
    Herbs also drywell. For more information on drying herbs, see "How to Store and Use Herbs," later in this book.

    Although many vegetables drywell, some vegetables should be preserved by other methods for best results. For example, lettuce, cucumbers, and radishes don't drywell because of their high moisture content. Asparagus and broccoli are better frozen
    to retain their flavor and texture. And if you've got the storage space, you may find it more practical to
    store fresh carrots, turnips, parsnips, potatoes, pumpkins, rutabagas, and winter squash in cold storage where they'll keep for several months without any special preserving treatment.

    FOOD DRYING METHODS

    The sun, of course, Is the food dryer our ancestors used. If you live where Old Sol shines long, you too can dry fruits and vegetables outdoors. But those in less sunny regions will want a little help from a kitchen oven (gas, electric, convection, or microwave) or one of the new electric dryers or dehydrators. You can also make your own box dryer.

    Oven drying is faster than using an electric dryer or dehydrator, but the electric dryers can handle much larger food loads than any of the ovens. Oven drying is best for small-scale preserving, since the ordinary kitchen model will hold no more than four to six pounds of food at one time. If you've got an extra-big vegetable garden and expect to dry food
    in quantity, you may want to investigate the new electric dryers or dehydrators, available in some stores and through seed catalogs. Several of the small convection ovens now on the market also have special racks available for drying vegetables. When using an electric dryer, or a convection or microwave oven for drying vegetables, always read and follow the manufacturer's directions.

    Oven drying

    Oven drying may be the easiest way for you to dry food, because it eliminates the need for special equipment. If you've never tried dried vegetables before, why not do up a small batch and sample the taste and texture?

    Gas and electric ovens. Preheat your gas or electric oven to 140°F for drying vegetables; you'll need an oven thermometer that registers as low as 100°F in order to keep this temperature constant throughout the many hours of the drying process. Since ovens will vary, you'll probably have to experiment until you learn what works best with yours. For example, the pilot light on some gas stoves may provide just enough heat, or the light bulb in the oven may keep it warm enough for drying vegetables. Some electric ovens have a "low" or "warm" setting that may provide the right temperature for drying.
    You must keep the oven door open slightly during drying, so moist air can escape. Use a rolled newspaper, wood block, hot pad, or other similar item to prop open the oven door about one inch for an electric oven and four to six inches for a gas oven. Sometimes it also helps to place an electric fan set on "low" in front of the oven door to keep air circulating. Don't use a fan for a gas oven with a pilot light, though; it can blow out the pilot.

    You'll be able to read the oven thermometer easily if you put it in the middle of the top tray of vegetables, take a reading after the first 10 minutes, and, if necessary, make adjustments in the door opening or the temperature control. After^ that, check the oven temperature every 30 minutes during the drying process to be sure it remains constant at 140°F.

    To keep air circulating around the food, your drying trays should be one to two inches smaller all around than the interior of your oven. If you want to add more trays, place blocks of wood at the corners of the oven racks and stack the trays at least one-and- a-half inches apart. You can dry up to four trays at once in a conventional oven, but remember that a big load takes longer to dry than a smaller one. Don't use the top position of the oven rack in an electric oven for drying, because food on the top tray will dry too quickly.

    Since the temperature varies inside the oven, it's important to shift your vegetable drying trays every half-hour. Rotate the trays from front to back, and shift them from top to bottom. Numbering the trays will help you keep track of the rotation order. You'll also need to stir the vegetables every 30 minutes, to be sure the pieces are drying evenly.

    Convection ovens. To dry vegetables in a convection oven, arrange them on the dehydrating racks provided, and place the racks in a cold oven. Set the temperature at 150°F for vegetables, 100°F for herbs. The air should feel warm, not hot. Keep an oven thermometer inside the oven, so you can keep track of the temperature. Prop the oven door open one to one-and-a-half inches to allow moisture to evaporate. Set the oven timer to the "stay o n " position. Or, if your oven doesn't have a "stay on" option, set it for maximum time possible, then reset It during drying, if necessary. Drying times in a convection oven are usually shorter, so check
    foods for doneness at the lower range of times given in the recipes. Rotate the racks and stir the vegetables as you would using a conventional oven.

    Microwave ovens. To dry foods in a microwave oven, follow the directions that come with your appliance. Usually, you arrange the prepared vegetables in a single, even layer on paper towels, cover them with more paper towels, and then dry the food at a reduced power setting. If you have a microwave roasting rack, arrange the vegetables on It before drying. Stir the vegetables and replace the paper towels with fresh ones periodically. Exact drying times can vary widely, depending on the wattage and efficiency of your oven, the food itself, and the humidity, so you'll need to check frequently and keep a record of best drying times for reference.

    Food dryers

    Both commercial and homemade food dryers provide automatically controlled heat and ventilation. You can buy the new electric dryers or dehydrators in many hardware, housewares, farm supply, and health food stores. Prices range from $25 to $100, depending on the size of the appliance and other special features. Or you can make your own drying box, following the directions given below.

    Electric dryers or dehydrators. These are lightweight metal boxes with drawer racks for drying foods, which will hold up to 14 pounds of fresh vegetables. If you'll be doing a great deal of home drying, look into an electric dryer, because drying large quantities of vegetables could tie up your kitchen oven for days at a time. Although electric dryers use less electricity for drying than would an electric oven for the same amount of vegetables, electric dryers run at lower temperatures and drying times are a bit longer.

    When using an electric dryer or dehydrator, always follow the manufacturer's directions for drying foods. 
     
    Homemade drying box. A simple-to-make drying box can be constructed from a cardboard box, as in the instructions that follow. Or you may invent some other alternatives. For example, your radiators may send out enough heat to dry foods in winter, or perhaps your attic in the summer is hot and dry enough. Never use space heaters for drying vegetables, though — space heaters stir up dust and dirt, which contaminate the food.

    How to make a drying box. A hardware or discount store should have everything you need to make this simple dryer: 
    • Either a metal cookie sheet with sides or a jelly- roll pan is needed to hold the food.

    • An empty cardboard box (that has the same top dimensions as the cookie sheet) forms the drying box. The sheet should just fit on top of the box, or the rims of the sides should rest on the edges of the open-topped box. 
    • A box of heavy-duty or extra-wide aluminum foil is used to line the box.
    • A small can of black paint is used to paint the bottom of the cookie sheet; buy a spray can or a small brush.
    • A 60-watt light bulb and socket attached to a cord and plug provide the heat. 
     
    Line the inside of the box with foil, shiny side up. Cut a tiny notch in one corner for the cord to run out. Set the light fixture in the center, resting it on a crumpled piece of foil. Paint the bottom of the cookie sheet black and let it dry.

    Prepare the vegetables according to the recipe. Spread them in a single, even layer on the black- bottomed cookie sheet. Then put the sheet in place on top of the box. Plug in the light bulb to preheat the box and dry until the food is done according to the recipe. Each recipe specifies how to tell when food is sufficiently dry. If you're drying more than one

    sheet of food you II have to make more than one drying box. Don't prepare more food than you can dry at one time.

    BASIC DRYING EQUIPMENT

    Unless you decide to buy an electric dryer or dehydrator, you've probably already got everything necessary for home drying vegetables. In addition to an oven or a box food dryer, you'll need:

    • A scale to weigh food before and after drying. • An oven thermometer that will read as low as 100°F for maintaining proper oven temperature. • Sharp stainless steel knives that won't discolor the vegetables, for thin-slicing, paring, or cutting the food in half.

    A cutting board for chopping and slicing. Be sure to scrub the board thoroughly before and after use.

    Baking or cookie sheets for use as drying trays. Unless you're making a box food dryer, cookie sheets without raised edges are best, since they allow hot air to circulate around all sides of the vegetables. (For microwave or convection oven drying, you'll need a special rack.) Baking or cookie sheets used for drying should be at least one to two inches smaller all around than the inside of your oven, so air can circulate.

    A blancher for pretreatment of most vegetables. Use a ready-made blancher; or make one using a deep pot with a cover, and a colander or gasket that will fit down inside the pot. For steam blanching, you'll need a rack or steamer basket.

    A long, flexible spatula for stirring the vegetable pieces to insure even drying.
    Airtight storage containers, with tight-fitting lids, that are also molsture/vaporproof. Use glass canning or other jars, coffee cans lined with plastic bags, freezer containers, or refrigerator-ware.

    You can also use double plastic bags; close them tightly with string, rubber bands, or twist ties. An electric fan to circulate the air in front of your oven, if necessary.  
     
     
    BASIC INGREDIENTS

    Choose perfect vegetables that are tender, mature (but not woody), and very, very fresh. Vegetables must be prepared and dried immediately after harvesting, or they'll lose flavor and quality. Every minute from harvesting to the drying tray counts — so hurry. Never use produce with bad spots, and harvest only the amount of vegetables you can dry at one session.

    Since vegetables must be chilled quickly after blanching, you'll need ice at hand to keep the cooling water really cold. Keep a reserve of ice in the freezer and you won't run short. One way is to start filling heavy-duty plastic bags with Ice cubes a few days before you'll be home drying; or rinse out empty milk • cartons, then fill them with water and freeze.

    The kitchen sink is a favorite spot for holding ice water to chill vegetables, but if you want to keep it free for other uses, a plastic dishpan or other large,clean container also works very well.

    BASIC DRYING TECHNIQUES

    Although the techniques for drying vegetables aren't asprecise as those for freezing or canning, there's definitely a right way to go about it. As with all preserving methods, you must always begin with the freshest and highest-quality vegetables to insure good results. Cleanliness and sanitation when handling and preparing the food are also crucial. And, though drying vegetables isn't difficult to do, it demands plenty of careful attention. The vegetables must be stirred, the temperature checked, and tray positions changed about every half hour. That means you must be at home during the whole time it takes to dry your vegetables.

    Speed is of the essence when preparing foods to dry. For best results, vegetables should be blanched, cooled, and blotted dry within a very short time of harvesting. And you must never interrupt the drying process once it's begun. You can't cool partly dried food and then start it up again later, because there's a chance bacteria, molds, and yeasts will find a home in it. Always schedule your home drying for a day when you're certain your work won't be interrupted. 
     
    Cleaning and cutting

    Harvest only as much food as you can dry at one time. Using a kitchen oven, that's about four to six pounds; an electric dryer or dehydrator can handle up to 14 pounds of fresh produce. Wash and drain the vegetables, then cut and prepare as the recipe directs. Depending on the size of the vegetables and the dryer, that could mean slicing, grating, cutting, or simply breaking the food into pieces so it will dry evenly on all sides. Remember that thin pieces dry faster than thick ones. If you have a choice between French-cutting and crosscutting green beans, remember that the French-cut beans will dry faster.

    Blanching

    Nearly all vegetables must be blanched before drying. Blanching—a brief heat treatment—stops the action of enzymes, those catalysts for chemical change present in all foods. If certain enzymes aren't deactivated before vegetables are dried, the flavor and color of the food will be destroyed. The drying process alone isn't enough to stop enzyme activity.

    Although blanching can also help seal in nutrients, some other water-soluble nutrients are leached out into the cooking water. You may want to steam blanch your vegetables; it takes a bit longer, but won't lead to as great a loss of nutrients.

    Always follow the blanching times given in the recipes exactly. Overblanching will result in the loss of vitamins and minerals; under blanching won't do the job of stopping enzyme action. Either way, you'll end up with an inferior product.
    Boiling water blanching. Heat one gallon of water to boiling in a blancher. Put no more than one pound or four cups of prepared vegetables at a time into the blancher's insert, colander, or strainer, and carefully lower it into boiling water for the time given in the recipe.

    Steam blanching. Pour enough water into the blancher to cover the bottom, but not touch the insert. Heat to boiling. Arrange the prepared vegetables in a single layer in the blancher's insert; put them in the blancher over boiling water, cover tightly, and steam for the time given in the recipe. You can use any large pot or kettle for steam blanching by putting a rack about three inches above the bottom to hold the vegetables in the steam and up out of the boiling water. You may also wish to put the vegetables in a cheesecloth bag to keep the pieces together during blanching.

    Chilling

    You must always chill blanched vegetables before drying them, to be certain the cooking process has stopped. After removing the vegetables from the blancher, immerse the colander or steamer rack full of vegetables in a sink full of ice water or a dishpan full of ice water. The vegetables should be chilled for the same amount of time the recipe gives for blanching in boiling water. Drain well, then blot with paper towels.

    Preparing to dry

    Spread the blanched and drained vegetable pieces in a single, even layer on the drying tray. (You can dry more than one vegetable at the same time, but strong-smelling vegetables such as onions, cabbage, and carrots should be dried separately.) Put the trays in the oven or electric dryer, leaving at least one to two inches between the trays for air circulation.

    Maintaining proper drying temperature

    Vegetables must be dried at low, even temperatures — just enough heat to dry the pieces without cooking them. The proper temperature for drying in a conventional oven is 140°F, 1S0°F for convection ovens. Follow the manufacturer's directions for microwave ovens and all other appliances. Maintaining the right temperature steadily, with some air circulation, is the trick to successful drying. Electric dryers and dehydrators automatically maintain the right temperature. For oven drying or when using a homemade box dryer, check your oven thermometer every half hour. (To insure even drying, you must also stir the
    vegetables every 30 minutes or so, shift the trays from top to bottom, and rotate the trays from front to back.)

    Although rapid drying is important, too rapid drying in an oven will result in the outer surface of the food hardening before the moisture inside has evaporated (case hardening). You can prevent case hardening by keeping a constant watch on the oven temperature and doing whatever is needed to maintain the heat at 140°F.

    Scorching. Each vegetable has its own critical temperature beyond which a scorched taste will develop. Although there's not much danger of scorching at the start of the drying process, vegetables can scorch easily during the last couple of hours. Even slight scorching will ruin the flavor and affect the nutritive value of dried foods, so be extravigilant about maintaining the proper temperature toward the end of the drying process.

    Ventilation. When vegetables are drying, the moisture they contain escapes by evaporating into the surrounding air. If the air around the food is trapped, it will quickly reach a saturation point. Trapped, saturated air won't be able to hold any additional moisture — and drying won't take place. For this reason, ventilation in and around your oven is as important as keeping the temperature constant.

    Electric dryers or dehydrators automatically provide proper ventilation. With oven drying or when using a homemade box dryer, you'll need to leave the oven door slightly ajar — and possibly use an electric fan to insure good air circulation.

    In addition, the cookie sheets or trays you use for drying should be at least one to two inches smaller all around than the inside of your oven so air can circulate around the front, sides, and back of the trays. There should also be at least three inches of air space at the top of the oven.

    Testing for doneness

    In most forms of food preserving, processing times are exact. You know just how long it takes before the food is done. However, the times for drying vary considerably — from four hours to more than 12 — depending on the kind of vegetable, how thinly it's sliced, how much food is on each tray, and how much is being dried in the oven or dryer at one time. The recipes that follow give you the drying time range for each vegetable, but the only way you can be sure the food is sufficiently dry is to test sample pieces. 
     
    When you think the vegetables are dry, remove a few pieces from the tray, then return the tray to the oven. Let the sample pieces cool before testing — even food that's perfectly dry will feel soft and
    moist while still warm. When the pieces are cool, follow the test for doneness given for the vegetable in each recipe. A rule of thumb is that properly dried vegetables are hard and brittle to the touch. Exceptions to the rule are mushrooms, sweet peppers, and squash, which will feel pliable and leathery when dry. Some food experts recommend the hammer test: if sufficiently dry, the vegetable pieces will shatter when struck with a hammer.

    Conditioning

    Foods don't always dry evenly, nor does each piece or slice dry at exactly the same rate as all the others. To be sure all the food in a single batch is evenly dried, you'll have to condition it. Put the cooled, dried vegetables into a large, deep crock, dishpan, jar, or coffee can; then store it in a warm, dry room for a week to 10 days. Cover the jar or can lightly with cheesecloth to keep out insects, and stir the dried pieces at least once a day so that the moisture from any underdried pieces will be absorbed by the overdried pieces.

    After conditioning, give the vegetables one final treatment to get rid of any insects or insect eggs. Either put the dried vegetables in the freezer for a few hours, or heat them on a cookie sheet in a closed oven at 175°F for 15 minutes. Be sure to let the food cool completely again before packaging.

    HOW TO STORE DRIED VEGETABLES

    Keeping out air and moisture is the secret to good dried foods. To maintain the quality and safety of your dried vegetables, you'll need to take special care when packaging and storing them.

    Even when you're using an oven or an electric dehydrator, you'll have to watch out for the effects of humidity on drying foods. Choose a bright, sunny day for your home drying—that way you'll keep the dried vegetables from picking up moisture from the surrounding air after they leave the oven or dryer.

    Packaging

    Dried foods are vulnerable to contamination by insects as soon as they're removed from the oven or electric dryer. To protect them, you must package dried vegetables in airtight, moisture/vaporproof containers just as soon as they're completely dry. Canning jars that have been rinsed out with boiling water and dried, of course, make good containers, as do coffee cans and plastic freezer bags. When using a coffee can, first wrap the vegetable pieces in a plastic bag to keep the metal of the can from affecting the flavor of the food.

    Pint-size containers or small plastic bags are best for packaging dried vegetables. Try to pack the food tightly but without crushing it. If you're using
    plastic bags, force out as much air as possible before closing them. By using small bags, several may be packed into a larger jar or coffee can — that way you can use small portions as needed, without exposing the whole container to possible contamination each time it's opened.

    Storing foods safely

    Store your packaged, dried vegetables in a cool, dark, dry place. The cooler the temperature of the storage area, the longer foods will retain their high quality. However, dried foods can't be stored indefinitely, since they do lose vitamins, flavor, color, and aroma during storage. Your pantry or kitchen cupboards may provide good storage, if the area remains cool. A dry basement can also be a good spot. Dried vegetables can be stored in the freezer, too — but why take up valuable freezer space with foods that will keep at cool, room temperature?

    Many dried vegetables will keep up to 12 months. If properly stored. Carrots, onions, and cabbage will spoil more quickly, so use them up within six months.

    To be on the safe side, check the packages of dried vegetables from time to time. If you find mold, the food is no longer safe and should be discarded immediately. If you find a little moisture, but no spoilage, heat the dried vegetables for 15 minutes
    in a 175°F oven; then cool and repackage. If you find much moisture, the vegetables must be put through the entire drying process again. Remember, you must always cool dried foods thoroughly before packaging; if packaged while still warm, they'll sweat and may mold.

    HOW TO USE DRIED VEGETABLES

    To use dried vegetables, you have to reverse the drying or dehydration process to rehydrate them. This is accomplished in water or other liquid. If you soak dried vegetables before using them, they'll cook much faster. To rehydrate, add two cups of water for each cup of dried vegetables; boiling water will shorten the soaking time. After soaking, the vegetables should regain nearly the same size as when fresh. 
     
    Rehydrated vegetables are best used in soups, stews, salads, casseroles, and other combination dishes. See the recipes that follow for some serving suggestions.  view all
    Drying is probably the oldest method of food preservation. Though canned and frozen foods have taken over the major role once played by dried foods, drying is still cheaper and easier by comparison. Some other advantages of dried foods are that they take up less storage space and will keep well for a long time — up to 12 months — if
    prepared and stored properly. Unlike frozen foods, they are not dependent on a power source. Though you may find canned and frozen vegetables are closer in taste and appearance to fresh food, you'll like having a stock of dried vegetables on hand to add variety and special flavor to meals. 
     
    STOPPING THE SPOILERS

    Drying preserves vegetables by removing moisture, thus cutting off the water supply that would nourish food spoilers like bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The moisture content drops so low that spoilage organisms can't grow.
    Although there's a definite technique to drying vegetables, it isn't quite as precise as the procedures used for freezing or canning. Unless you'll be using an electric food dryer, you'll have to use trial and error to find the best way to maintain the proper oven temperature throughout the drying process and to provide good ventilation so moisture from the food can escape. Drying times are given in the recipes for the individual vegetables, but these times are only approximate. Every oven is different, and drying times also depend on how many vegetables you're drying at once, how thinly they've been sliced, and how steady you've kept the heat. So you'll have to experiment at first with drying times. Experience is the best teacher when it comes to judging when your vegetables are dry enough to keep the spoilers from contaminating them.

    Vegetables for drying

    There are a great many vegetables you can dry at home for use in perking up your salads, soups, stews, and casseroles. Good vegetables to dry include green beans, corn, peas, peppers, okra, onions, mushrooms, tomatoes, and summer squash.
    Herbs also drywell. For more information on drying herbs, see "How to Store and Use Herbs," later in this book.

    Although many vegetables drywell, some vegetables should be preserved by other methods for best results. For example, lettuce, cucumbers, and radishes don't drywell because of their high moisture content. Asparagus and broccoli are better frozen
    to retain their flavor and texture. And if you've got the storage space, you may find it more practical to
    store fresh carrots, turnips, parsnips, potatoes, pumpkins, rutabagas, and winter squash in cold storage where they'll keep for several months without any special preserving treatment.

    FOOD DRYING METHODS

    The sun, of course, Is the food dryer our ancestors used. If you live where Old Sol shines long, you too can dry fruits and vegetables outdoors. But those in less sunny regions will want a little help from a kitchen oven (gas, electric, convection, or microwave) or one of the new electric dryers or dehydrators. You can also make your own box dryer.

    Oven drying is faster than using an electric dryer or dehydrator, but the electric dryers can handle much larger food loads than any of the ovens. Oven drying is best for small-scale preserving, since the ordinary kitchen model will hold no more than four to six pounds of food at one time. If you've got an extra-big vegetable garden and expect to dry food
    in quantity, you may want to investigate the new electric dryers or dehydrators, available in some stores and through seed catalogs. Several of the small convection ovens now on the market also have special racks available for drying vegetables. When using an electric dryer, or a convection or microwave oven for drying vegetables, always read and follow the manufacturer's directions.

    Oven drying

    Oven drying may be the easiest way for you to dry food, because it eliminates the need for special equipment. If you've never tried dried vegetables before, why not do up a small batch and sample the taste and texture?

    Gas and electric ovens. Preheat your gas or electric oven to 140°F for drying vegetables; you'll need an oven thermometer that registers as low as 100°F in order to keep this temperature constant throughout the many hours of the drying process. Since ovens will vary, you'll probably have to experiment until you learn what works best with yours. For example, the pilot light on some gas stoves may provide just enough heat, or the light bulb in the oven may keep it warm enough for drying vegetables. Some electric ovens have a "low" or "warm" setting that may provide the right temperature for drying.
    You must keep the oven door open slightly during drying, so moist air can escape. Use a rolled newspaper, wood block, hot pad, or other similar item to prop open the oven door about one inch for an electric oven and four to six inches for a gas oven. Sometimes it also helps to place an electric fan set on "low" in front of the oven door to keep air circulating. Don't use a fan for a gas oven with a pilot light, though; it can blow out the pilot.

    You'll be able to read the oven thermometer easily if you put it in the middle of the top tray of vegetables, take a reading after the first 10 minutes, and, if necessary, make adjustments in the door opening or the temperature control. After^ that, check the oven temperature every 30 minutes during the drying process to be sure it remains constant at 140°F.

    To keep air circulating around the food, your drying trays should be one to two inches smaller all around than the interior of your oven. If you want to add more trays, place blocks of wood at the corners of the oven racks and stack the trays at least one-and- a-half inches apart. You can dry up to four trays at once in a conventional oven, but remember that a big load takes longer to dry than a smaller one. Don't use the top position of the oven rack in an electric oven for drying, because food on the top tray will dry too quickly.

    Since the temperature varies inside the oven, it's important to shift your vegetable drying trays every half-hour. Rotate the trays from front to back, and shift them from top to bottom. Numbering the trays will help you keep track of the rotation order. You'll also need to stir the vegetables every 30 minutes, to be sure the pieces are drying evenly.

    Convection ovens. To dry vegetables in a convection oven, arrange them on the dehydrating racks provided, and place the racks in a cold oven. Set the temperature at 150°F for vegetables, 100°F for herbs. The air should feel warm, not hot. Keep an oven thermometer inside the oven, so you can keep track of the temperature. Prop the oven door open one to one-and-a-half inches to allow moisture to evaporate. Set the oven timer to the "stay o n " position. Or, if your oven doesn't have a "stay on" option, set it for maximum time possible, then reset It during drying, if necessary. Drying times in a convection oven are usually shorter, so check
    foods for doneness at the lower range of times given in the recipes. Rotate the racks and stir the vegetables as you would using a conventional oven.

    Microwave ovens. To dry foods in a microwave oven, follow the directions that come with your appliance. Usually, you arrange the prepared vegetables in a single, even layer on paper towels, cover them with more paper towels, and then dry the food at a reduced power setting. If you have a microwave roasting rack, arrange the vegetables on It before drying. Stir the vegetables and replace the paper towels with fresh ones periodically. Exact drying times can vary widely, depending on the wattage and efficiency of your oven, the food itself, and the humidity, so you'll need to check frequently and keep a record of best drying times for reference.

    Food dryers

    Both commercial and homemade food dryers provide automatically controlled heat and ventilation. You can buy the new electric dryers or dehydrators in many hardware, housewares, farm supply, and health food stores. Prices range from $25 to $100, depending on the size of the appliance and other special features. Or you can make your own drying box, following the directions given below.

    Electric dryers or dehydrators. These are lightweight metal boxes with drawer racks for drying foods, which will hold up to 14 pounds of fresh vegetables. If you'll be doing a great deal of home drying, look into an electric dryer, because drying large quantities of vegetables could tie up your kitchen oven for days at a time. Although electric dryers use less electricity for drying than would an electric oven for the same amount of vegetables, electric dryers run at lower temperatures and drying times are a bit longer.

    When using an electric dryer or dehydrator, always follow the manufacturer's directions for drying foods. 
     
    Homemade drying box. A simple-to-make drying box can be constructed from a cardboard box, as in the instructions that follow. Or you may invent some other alternatives. For example, your radiators may send out enough heat to dry foods in winter, or perhaps your attic in the summer is hot and dry enough. Never use space heaters for drying vegetables, though — space heaters stir up dust and dirt, which contaminate the food.

    How to make a drying box. A hardware or discount store should have everything you need to make this simple dryer: 
    • Either a metal cookie sheet with sides or a jelly- roll pan is needed to hold the food.

    • An empty cardboard box (that has the same top dimensions as the cookie sheet) forms the drying box. The sheet should just fit on top of the box, or the rims of the sides should rest on the edges of the open-topped box. 
    • A box of heavy-duty or extra-wide aluminum foil is used to line the box.
    • A small can of black paint is used to paint the bottom of the cookie sheet; buy a spray can or a small brush.
    • A 60-watt light bulb and socket attached to a cord and plug provide the heat. 
     
    Line the inside of the box with foil, shiny side up. Cut a tiny notch in one corner for the cord to run out. Set the light fixture in the center, resting it on a crumpled piece of foil. Paint the bottom of the cookie sheet black and let it dry.

    Prepare the vegetables according to the recipe. Spread them in a single, even layer on the black- bottomed cookie sheet. Then put the sheet in place on top of the box. Plug in the light bulb to preheat the box and dry until the food is done according to the recipe. Each recipe specifies how to tell when food is sufficiently dry. If you're drying more than one

    sheet of food you II have to make more than one drying box. Don't prepare more food than you can dry at one time.

    BASIC DRYING EQUIPMENT

    Unless you decide to buy an electric dryer or dehydrator, you've probably already got everything necessary for home drying vegetables. In addition to an oven or a box food dryer, you'll need:

    • A scale to weigh food before and after drying. • An oven thermometer that will read as low as 100°F for maintaining proper oven temperature. • Sharp stainless steel knives that won't discolor the vegetables, for thin-slicing, paring, or cutting the food in half.

    A cutting board for chopping and slicing. Be sure to scrub the board thoroughly before and after use.

    Baking or cookie sheets for use as drying trays. Unless you're making a box food dryer, cookie sheets without raised edges are best, since they allow hot air to circulate around all sides of the vegetables. (For microwave or convection oven drying, you'll need a special rack.) Baking or cookie sheets used for drying should be at least one to two inches smaller all around than the inside of your oven, so air can circulate.

    A blancher for pretreatment of most vegetables. Use a ready-made blancher; or make one using a deep pot with a cover, and a colander or gasket that will fit down inside the pot. For steam blanching, you'll need a rack or steamer basket.

    A long, flexible spatula for stirring the vegetable pieces to insure even drying.
    Airtight storage containers, with tight-fitting lids, that are also molsture/vaporproof. Use glass canning or other jars, coffee cans lined with plastic bags, freezer containers, or refrigerator-ware.

    You can also use double plastic bags; close them tightly with string, rubber bands, or twist ties. An electric fan to circulate the air in front of your oven, if necessary.  
     
     
    BASIC INGREDIENTS

    Choose perfect vegetables that are tender, mature (but not woody), and very, very fresh. Vegetables must be prepared and dried immediately after harvesting, or they'll lose flavor and quality. Every minute from harvesting to the drying tray counts — so hurry. Never use produce with bad spots, and harvest only the amount of vegetables you can dry at one session.

    Since vegetables must be chilled quickly after blanching, you'll need ice at hand to keep the cooling water really cold. Keep a reserve of ice in the freezer and you won't run short. One way is to start filling heavy-duty plastic bags with Ice cubes a few days before you'll be home drying; or rinse out empty milk • cartons, then fill them with water and freeze.

    The kitchen sink is a favorite spot for holding ice water to chill vegetables, but if you want to keep it free for other uses, a plastic dishpan or other large,clean container also works very well.

    BASIC DRYING TECHNIQUES

    Although the techniques for drying vegetables aren't asprecise as those for freezing or canning, there's definitely a right way to go about it. As with all preserving methods, you must always begin with the freshest and highest-quality vegetables to insure good results. Cleanliness and sanitation when handling and preparing the food are also crucial. And, though drying vegetables isn't difficult to do, it demands plenty of careful attention. The vegetables must be stirred, the temperature checked, and tray positions changed about every half hour. That means you must be at home during the whole time it takes to dry your vegetables.

    Speed is of the essence when preparing foods to dry. For best results, vegetables should be blanched, cooled, and blotted dry within a very short time of harvesting. And you must never interrupt the drying process once it's begun. You can't cool partly dried food and then start it up again later, because there's a chance bacteria, molds, and yeasts will find a home in it. Always schedule your home drying for a day when you're certain your work won't be interrupted. 
     
    Cleaning and cutting

    Harvest only as much food as you can dry at one time. Using a kitchen oven, that's about four to six pounds; an electric dryer or dehydrator can handle up to 14 pounds of fresh produce. Wash and drain the vegetables, then cut and prepare as the recipe directs. Depending on the size of the vegetables and the dryer, that could mean slicing, grating, cutting, or simply breaking the food into pieces so it will dry evenly on all sides. Remember that thin pieces dry faster than thick ones. If you have a choice between French-cutting and crosscutting green beans, remember that the French-cut beans will dry faster.

    Blanching

    Nearly all vegetables must be blanched before drying. Blanching—a brief heat treatment—stops the action of enzymes, those catalysts for chemical change present in all foods. If certain enzymes aren't deactivated before vegetables are dried, the flavor and color of the food will be destroyed. The drying process alone isn't enough to stop enzyme activity.

    Although blanching can also help seal in nutrients, some other water-soluble nutrients are leached out into the cooking water. You may want to steam blanch your vegetables; it takes a bit longer, but won't lead to as great a loss of nutrients.

    Always follow the blanching times given in the recipes exactly. Overblanching will result in the loss of vitamins and minerals; under blanching won't do the job of stopping enzyme action. Either way, you'll end up with an inferior product.
    Boiling water blanching. Heat one gallon of water to boiling in a blancher. Put no more than one pound or four cups of prepared vegetables at a time into the blancher's insert, colander, or strainer, and carefully lower it into boiling water for the time given in the recipe.

    Steam blanching. Pour enough water into the blancher to cover the bottom, but not touch the insert. Heat to boiling. Arrange the prepared vegetables in a single layer in the blancher's insert; put them in the blancher over boiling water, cover tightly, and steam for the time given in the recipe. You can use any large pot or kettle for steam blanching by putting a rack about three inches above the bottom to hold the vegetables in the steam and up out of the boiling water. You may also wish to put the vegetables in a cheesecloth bag to keep the pieces together during blanching.

    Chilling

    You must always chill blanched vegetables before drying them, to be certain the cooking process has stopped. After removing the vegetables from the blancher, immerse the colander or steamer rack full of vegetables in a sink full of ice water or a dishpan full of ice water. The vegetables should be chilled for the same amount of time the recipe gives for blanching in boiling water. Drain well, then blot with paper towels.

    Preparing to dry

    Spread the blanched and drained vegetable pieces in a single, even layer on the drying tray. (You can dry more than one vegetable at the same time, but strong-smelling vegetables such as onions, cabbage, and carrots should be dried separately.) Put the trays in the oven or electric dryer, leaving at least one to two inches between the trays for air circulation.

    Maintaining proper drying temperature

    Vegetables must be dried at low, even temperatures — just enough heat to dry the pieces without cooking them. The proper temperature for drying in a conventional oven is 140°F, 1S0°F for convection ovens. Follow the manufacturer's directions for microwave ovens and all other appliances. Maintaining the right temperature steadily, with some air circulation, is the trick to successful drying. Electric dryers and dehydrators automatically maintain the right temperature. For oven drying or when using a homemade box dryer, check your oven thermometer every half hour. (To insure even drying, you must also stir the
    vegetables every 30 minutes or so, shift the trays from top to bottom, and rotate the trays from front to back.)

    Although rapid drying is important, too rapid drying in an oven will result in the outer surface of the food hardening before the moisture inside has evaporated (case hardening). You can prevent case hardening by keeping a constant watch on the oven temperature and doing whatever is needed to maintain the heat at 140°F.

    Scorching. Each vegetable has its own critical temperature beyond which a scorched taste will develop. Although there's not much danger of scorching at the start of the drying process, vegetables can scorch easily during the last couple of hours. Even slight scorching will ruin the flavor and affect the nutritive value of dried foods, so be extravigilant about maintaining the proper temperature toward the end of the drying process.

    Ventilation. When vegetables are drying, the moisture they contain escapes by evaporating into the surrounding air. If the air around the food is trapped, it will quickly reach a saturation point. Trapped, saturated air won't be able to hold any additional moisture — and drying won't take place. For this reason, ventilation in and around your oven is as important as keeping the temperature constant.

    Electric dryers or dehydrators automatically provide proper ventilation. With oven drying or when using a homemade box dryer, you'll need to leave the oven door slightly ajar — and possibly use an electric fan to insure good air circulation.

    In addition, the cookie sheets or trays you use for drying should be at least one to two inches smaller all around than the inside of your oven so air can circulate around the front, sides, and back of the trays. There should also be at least three inches of air space at the top of the oven.

    Testing for doneness

    In most forms of food preserving, processing times are exact. You know just how long it takes before the food is done. However, the times for drying vary considerably — from four hours to more than 12 — depending on the kind of vegetable, how thinly it's sliced, how much food is on each tray, and how much is being dried in the oven or dryer at one time. The recipes that follow give you the drying time range for each vegetable, but the only way you can be sure the food is sufficiently dry is to test sample pieces. 
     
    When you think the vegetables are dry, remove a few pieces from the tray, then return the tray to the oven. Let the sample pieces cool before testing — even food that's perfectly dry will feel soft and
    moist while still warm. When the pieces are cool, follow the test for doneness given for the vegetable in each recipe. A rule of thumb is that properly dried vegetables are hard and brittle to the touch. Exceptions to the rule are mushrooms, sweet peppers, and squash, which will feel pliable and leathery when dry. Some food experts recommend the hammer test: if sufficiently dry, the vegetable pieces will shatter when struck with a hammer.

    Conditioning

    Foods don't always dry evenly, nor does each piece or slice dry at exactly the same rate as all the others. To be sure all the food in a single batch is evenly dried, you'll have to condition it. Put the cooled, dried vegetables into a large, deep crock, dishpan, jar, or coffee can; then store it in a warm, dry room for a week to 10 days. Cover the jar or can lightly with cheesecloth to keep out insects, and stir the dried pieces at least once a day so that the moisture from any underdried pieces will be absorbed by the overdried pieces.

    After conditioning, give the vegetables one final treatment to get rid of any insects or insect eggs. Either put the dried vegetables in the freezer for a few hours, or heat them on a cookie sheet in a closed oven at 175°F for 15 minutes. Be sure to let the food cool completely again before packaging.

    HOW TO STORE DRIED VEGETABLES

    Keeping out air and moisture is the secret to good dried foods. To maintain the quality and safety of your dried vegetables, you'll need to take special care when packaging and storing them.

    Even when you're using an oven or an electric dehydrator, you'll have to watch out for the effects of humidity on drying foods. Choose a bright, sunny day for your home drying—that way you'll keep the dried vegetables from picking up moisture from the surrounding air after they leave the oven or dryer.

    Packaging

    Dried foods are vulnerable to contamination by insects as soon as they're removed from the oven or electric dryer. To protect them, you must package dried vegetables in airtight, moisture/vaporproof containers just as soon as they're completely dry. Canning jars that have been rinsed out with boiling water and dried, of course, make good containers, as do coffee cans and plastic freezer bags. When using a coffee can, first wrap the vegetable pieces in a plastic bag to keep the metal of the can from affecting the flavor of the food.

    Pint-size containers or small plastic bags are best for packaging dried vegetables. Try to pack the food tightly but without crushing it. If you're using
    plastic bags, force out as much air as possible before closing them. By using small bags, several may be packed into a larger jar or coffee can — that way you can use small portions as needed, without exposing the whole container to possible contamination each time it's opened.

    Storing foods safely

    Store your packaged, dried vegetables in a cool, dark, dry place. The cooler the temperature of the storage area, the longer foods will retain their high quality. However, dried foods can't be stored indefinitely, since they do lose vitamins, flavor, color, and aroma during storage. Your pantry or kitchen cupboards may provide good storage, if the area remains cool. A dry basement can also be a good spot. Dried vegetables can be stored in the freezer, too — but why take up valuable freezer space with foods that will keep at cool, room temperature?

    Many dried vegetables will keep up to 12 months. If properly stored. Carrots, onions, and cabbage will spoil more quickly, so use them up within six months.

    To be on the safe side, check the packages of dried vegetables from time to time. If you find mold, the food is no longer safe and should be discarded immediately. If you find a little moisture, but no spoilage, heat the dried vegetables for 15 minutes
    in a 175°F oven; then cool and repackage. If you find much moisture, the vegetables must be put through the entire drying process again. Remember, you must always cool dried foods thoroughly before packaging; if packaged while still warm, they'll sweat and may mold.

    HOW TO USE DRIED VEGETABLES

    To use dried vegetables, you have to reverse the drying or dehydration process to rehydrate them. This is accomplished in water or other liquid. If you soak dried vegetables before using them, they'll cook much faster. To rehydrate, add two cups of water for each cup of dried vegetables; boiling water will shorten the soaking time. After soaking, the vegetables should regain nearly the same size as when fresh. 
     
    Rehydrated vegetables are best used in soups, stews, salads, casseroles, and other combination dishes. See the recipes that follow for some serving suggestions. 
    179
    Views

    How to keep the garden healthy

    ExperienceIves Published the article • 0 comments • 179 views • 2017-10-30 16:59 • came from similar tags

    One of the most challenging—and sometimes frustrating — aspects of being a gardener is all the natural forces you have to combat. Even in the unlikely event that you have perfect soil and a marvelous climate, you're still not home and dry;
    all sorts of pests are In competition with you for your crop. The pest problems you're likely to encounter in your vegetable garden fall Into two categories: insects and the like, of which there are a remarkable variety; and animals, usually the four-legged kind but occasionally two-legged intruders as well.

    Most gardeners have to contend with insect problems at some time during the growing season, but the problems are not always obvious. It can come as quite a surprise, just when it looks as though all your hard work is paying off and your plants are progressing healthily towards a fine harvest, to find that the pests are at work. You may notice one morning that a couple of healthy young plants have keeled over and died — a pretty sure indication that you've got cutworms working away beneath the soil level. Or you may see tiny holes in the leaves of your eggplant, signaling the activity of the flea beetle.

    Your plants are subject to diseases, too, and you know you're in trouble when the leaves turn'yellow, or the plants seem stunted and weak, or mildew starts to show up on leaves and stems. Plant diseases spread rapidly and must be curbed as soon as they appear, but this isn't always easy. There are certain measures you can take to forestall disease problems — like planting varieties that have been bred to be disease- resistant, and rotating some crops when it's
    possible to do so. Beyond that, once a disease attacks a plant, about all you can do is remove the infected plant — among horticulturalists this process is called "culling" — to stop the disease from spreading to neighboring healthy plants. On the whole, pest problems are easier to control than problems caused by plant diseases.
     
    CONTROLLING INSECT PESTS

    To many people anything In the garden that crawls or flies and is smaller than a chipmunk or a sparrow can be classified as an insect. In fact, a lot of the creatures that may bug your vegetable plants are not insects at all — mites, slugs, snails, nematodes, sowbugs, and symphylans among them. Another popular misconception is that insects and similar creatures are harmful or unnecessary and have no place in the garden. Again, it isn't true. While some insects are destructive, many are perfectly harmless. A lot of them are actually important to the healthy development of your garden crop, some because they perform a specific service by keeping down other pests that do harm your crop, and some because they pollinate the plants. When you set out to control harmful pests, it's important to realize that indiscriminate controls may destroy the good as well as the bad; the useful creatures as well as the harmful ones.

    Controlling the insect pests that attack your vegetable garden can be a challenge; the method you choose for controlling them can also be controversial. Many gardeners rely on chemical insecticides to do away with the enemy that's competing for the crop. Some people, however, object to the use of chemicals because they believe that the chemicals may remain on the plant and harm the person who eats it or that they may harm the environment. These gardeners prefer to rely on organic, or nonchemical, means of control. There may also be times when it's better not to use a chemical control even if you have no personal objection to it — if you catch a caterpillar attack in the early stages, for example, it can be easier to pick off the offenders by hand than to mix up a whole batch of insecticide. This chapter discusses the most effective means of control — both chemical and organic — for the pest problems you're most likely to encounter. 
     
    CHEMICAL CONTROLS: INSECTICIDES

    The surest way to control most of the insects and similar creatures that threaten your vegetable crop is by using a chemical insecticide. A word here about terminology: In horticultural language the terms "pesticide" and "insecticide" are not interchangeable. A pesticide is any form of chemical control used in the garden; an insecticide is a specific type of pesticide used to control a specific situation — to kill insects. A herbicide is a different kind of pesticide with a different application — it's used to help control garden weeds. These distinctions are important, because using the wrong one will cause havoc in your garden. For instance, if you use a herbicide instead of an insecticide you'll lose your entire crop for the season. It's also important to keep separate equipment for use with each kind of pesticide.

    Insecticides are chemical products that are sprayed or dusted on the affected crops. The type you spray on is bought in concentrated form, then diluted for use with a hand sprayer or a spray attachment fitted to the end of your garden hose. Dust-on insecticides are powders that you pump on to the plants. Spraying is preferable because it gives more thorough coverage, and it's easier to treat the undersides as well as the tops of leaves and plants with a spray. You can also apply insecticides directly to the soil to kill insects under the soil surface — this technique is known as applying a "soil drench."

    Used correctly and responsibly, insecticides are not harmful to humans or other animals. They are toxic, but the toxicity levels are low, and their residual or carryover effect is short — the longest any of the insecticides commonly used in the home garden will remain on the plant is about 14 days. Malathion, for instance, has the same toxicity level as Scotch whiskey and breaks down faster. As to any long-lasting hazards that may be involved —nobody knows if hazards exist or what they might be; we don't know what the long-lasting hazards of any product might be. The choice of an organic or a synthetic pesticide is a matter of personal opinion.
    If you know all the options you'll be able to make your own choice .
     
    Commonly used insecticides

    The insecticides listed below for use in your home vegetable garden will provide effective control of garden insects with minimum hazard. Remember, though, that most insecticides are poisons and must be handled as such.
    Diazinon. This is an organic phosphate, and it's an effective insecticide for general use. Diazinon is a contact poison. Its toxicity is low, and it's a good control for underground insects that attack the roots of cabbage family plants, onions, and radishes. You can get it as a wettable powder or in liquid form.
     
    Malathion. This is also a phosphate insecticide; it kills sucking insects like aphids. Its effects are not as long-lasting as those of some other insecticides,but it's effective and safe in use. It's available as a dust, a wettable powder, or a liquid.
     
    Sevin. This is also known as carbaryl and is another safe material for use in home gardens. It's an effective control for many leaf-eating caterpillars and leafhoppers, and is available as a wettable powder or a dust.Bacillus thuringiensis. This is an organic insecticide. It's a bacterium that is considered harmless to all but insects, and you can buy it under the brand names of Dipel, Thuricide, or Bactur. It controls cabbage worms and other caterpillars and is available in wettable powder or liquid forms. This is the choice of many gardeners who prefer not to use chemical insecticides. 
     
    Cause and cure: Be sure you've got them right

    Because an insecticide can't distinguish between friend and foe, it's your responsibility to make sure you're eliminating the pest, not the friendly insect that's out there working for you. Let's say, for instance, that aphids are attacking your cabbage plants, and you use carbaryl (Sevin) to try to get rid of them because you know carbaryl is a relatively safe insecticide with a short residual effect. You've overlooked the fact that carbaryl has to enter the insect's stomach in order to kill it, and since the aphid's mouth is inside the cabbage plant, none of the insecticide is going to enter the insect through the mouth and reach its stomach. Ladybugs, however, love aphids and are most helpful in keeping down their numbers. So when the ladybug eats the aphid, the carbaryl on the aphid's body enters the ladybug's stomach and kills it. Despite the best intentions in the world, you've killed off the useful insect and left the pest unharmed. In fact you've done the pest a favor by killing off its enemy — a ladybug can put away hundreds of aphids in a day.

    Carbaryl can also be toxic to bees, and bees are important to your garden because they pollinate most fruiting vegetable crops. To avoid killing the bees, spray in the late evening when the flowers are closed. This way you kill the destructive pests but protect the bees.If you use an insecticide you must always be aware also of how long its residual effect is going to last. A residue of insecticide left on the plant when it's harvested is poisonous. The residual effect of an insecticide that you use in your vegetable garden is likely to be fairly short, but the effect may vary from one type of crop to another. And because the effect is not long-lasting, you can't spray as a preventive measure; you have no way of knowing which pests . are going to attack your plants before they're actually on the scene.  view all
    One of the most challenging—and sometimes frustrating — aspects of being a gardener is all the natural forces you have to combat. Even in the unlikely event that you have perfect soil and a marvelous climate, you're still not home and dry;
    all sorts of pests are In competition with you for your crop. The pest problems you're likely to encounter in your vegetable garden fall Into two categories: insects and the like, of which there are a remarkable variety; and animals, usually the four-legged kind but occasionally two-legged intruders as well.

    Most gardeners have to contend with insect problems at some time during the growing season, but the problems are not always obvious. It can come as quite a surprise, just when it looks as though all your hard work is paying off and your plants are progressing healthily towards a fine harvest, to find that the pests are at work. You may notice one morning that a couple of healthy young plants have keeled over and died — a pretty sure indication that you've got cutworms working away beneath the soil level. Or you may see tiny holes in the leaves of your eggplant, signaling the activity of the flea beetle.

    Your plants are subject to diseases, too, and you know you're in trouble when the leaves turn'yellow, or the plants seem stunted and weak, or mildew starts to show up on leaves and stems. Plant diseases spread rapidly and must be curbed as soon as they appear, but this isn't always easy. There are certain measures you can take to forestall disease problems — like planting varieties that have been bred to be disease- resistant, and rotating some crops when it's
    possible to do so. Beyond that, once a disease attacks a plant, about all you can do is remove the infected plant — among horticulturalists this process is called "culling" — to stop the disease from spreading to neighboring healthy plants. On the whole, pest problems are easier to control than problems caused by plant diseases.
     
    CONTROLLING INSECT PESTS

    To many people anything In the garden that crawls or flies and is smaller than a chipmunk or a sparrow can be classified as an insect. In fact, a lot of the creatures that may bug your vegetable plants are not insects at all — mites, slugs, snails, nematodes, sowbugs, and symphylans among them. Another popular misconception is that insects and similar creatures are harmful or unnecessary and have no place in the garden. Again, it isn't true. While some insects are destructive, many are perfectly harmless. A lot of them are actually important to the healthy development of your garden crop, some because they perform a specific service by keeping down other pests that do harm your crop, and some because they pollinate the plants. When you set out to control harmful pests, it's important to realize that indiscriminate controls may destroy the good as well as the bad; the useful creatures as well as the harmful ones.

    Controlling the insect pests that attack your vegetable garden can be a challenge; the method you choose for controlling them can also be controversial. Many gardeners rely on chemical insecticides to do away with the enemy that's competing for the crop. Some people, however, object to the use of chemicals because they believe that the chemicals may remain on the plant and harm the person who eats it or that they may harm the environment. These gardeners prefer to rely on organic, or nonchemical, means of control. There may also be times when it's better not to use a chemical control even if you have no personal objection to it — if you catch a caterpillar attack in the early stages, for example, it can be easier to pick off the offenders by hand than to mix up a whole batch of insecticide. This chapter discusses the most effective means of control — both chemical and organic — for the pest problems you're most likely to encounter. 
     
    CHEMICAL CONTROLS: INSECTICIDES

    The surest way to control most of the insects and similar creatures that threaten your vegetable crop is by using a chemical insecticide. A word here about terminology: In horticultural language the terms "pesticide" and "insecticide" are not interchangeable. A pesticide is any form of chemical control used in the garden; an insecticide is a specific type of pesticide used to control a specific situation — to kill insects. A herbicide is a different kind of pesticide with a different application — it's used to help control garden weeds. These distinctions are important, because using the wrong one will cause havoc in your garden. For instance, if you use a herbicide instead of an insecticide you'll lose your entire crop for the season. It's also important to keep separate equipment for use with each kind of pesticide.

    Insecticides are chemical products that are sprayed or dusted on the affected crops. The type you spray on is bought in concentrated form, then diluted for use with a hand sprayer or a spray attachment fitted to the end of your garden hose. Dust-on insecticides are powders that you pump on to the plants. Spraying is preferable because it gives more thorough coverage, and it's easier to treat the undersides as well as the tops of leaves and plants with a spray. You can also apply insecticides directly to the soil to kill insects under the soil surface — this technique is known as applying a "soil drench."

    Used correctly and responsibly, insecticides are not harmful to humans or other animals. They are toxic, but the toxicity levels are low, and their residual or carryover effect is short — the longest any of the insecticides commonly used in the home garden will remain on the plant is about 14 days. Malathion, for instance, has the same toxicity level as Scotch whiskey and breaks down faster. As to any long-lasting hazards that may be involved —nobody knows if hazards exist or what they might be; we don't know what the long-lasting hazards of any product might be. The choice of an organic or a synthetic pesticide is a matter of personal opinion.
    If you know all the options you'll be able to make your own choice .
     
    Commonly used insecticides

    The insecticides listed below for use in your home vegetable garden will provide effective control of garden insects with minimum hazard. Remember, though, that most insecticides are poisons and must be handled as such.
    • Diazinon. This is an organic phosphate, and it's an effective insecticide for general use. Diazinon is a contact poison. Its toxicity is low, and it's a good control for underground insects that attack the roots of cabbage family plants, onions, and radishes. You can get it as a wettable powder or in liquid form.

     
    • Malathion. This is also a phosphate insecticide; it kills sucking insects like aphids. Its effects are not as long-lasting as those of some other insecticides,but it's effective and safe in use. It's available as a dust, a wettable powder, or a liquid.

     
    • Sevin. This is also known as carbaryl and is another safe material for use in home gardens. It's an effective control for many leaf-eating caterpillars and leafhoppers, and is available as a wettable powder or a dust.
    • Bacillus thuringiensis. This is an organic insecticide. It's a bacterium that is considered harmless to all but insects, and you can buy it under the brand names of Dipel, Thuricide, or Bactur. It controls cabbage worms and other caterpillars and is available in wettable powder or liquid forms. This is the choice of many gardeners who prefer not to use chemical insecticides. 

     
    Cause and cure: Be sure you've got them right

    Because an insecticide can't distinguish between friend and foe, it's your responsibility to make sure you're eliminating the pest, not the friendly insect that's out there working for you. Let's say, for instance, that aphids are attacking your cabbage plants, and you use carbaryl (Sevin) to try to get rid of them because you know carbaryl is a relatively safe insecticide with a short residual effect. You've overlooked the fact that carbaryl has to enter the insect's stomach in order to kill it, and since the aphid's mouth is inside the cabbage plant, none of the insecticide is going to enter the insect through the mouth and reach its stomach. Ladybugs, however, love aphids and are most helpful in keeping down their numbers. So when the ladybug eats the aphid, the carbaryl on the aphid's body enters the ladybug's stomach and kills it. Despite the best intentions in the world, you've killed off the useful insect and left the pest unharmed. In fact you've done the pest a favor by killing off its enemy — a ladybug can put away hundreds of aphids in a day.

    Carbaryl can also be toxic to bees, and bees are important to your garden because they pollinate most fruiting vegetable crops. To avoid killing the bees, spray in the late evening when the flowers are closed. This way you kill the destructive pests but protect the bees.If you use an insecticide you must always be aware also of how long its residual effect is going to last. A residue of insecticide left on the plant when it's harvested is poisonous. The residual effect of an insecticide that you use in your vegetable garden is likely to be fairly short, but the effect may vary from one type of crop to another. And because the effect is not long-lasting, you can't spray as a preventive measure; you have no way of knowing which pests . are going to attack your plants before they're actually on the scene. 
    169
    Views

    How to use an insecticide in your garden(insecticide tutorial)

    ExperienceIves Published the article • 0 comments • 169 views • 2017-10-30 16:59 • came from similar tags

    Because research is constantly being done to determine the safety of insecticides and improve their effectiveness, it's difficult to give long-term recommendations about their use. Basic rules, however, always apply: Read the directions and precautions on the label and follow them meticulously, and never make the solution
    stronger than the label says because you think it'll work better that way. If the product would be more effective in a stronger solution the label would say so.

    You need to use common sense when working with an insecticide. If there are just a few, visible insects on your plants, it may be a lot easier to remove them by hand than to go through the full routine of applying a chemical remedy. Also, weather conditions limit when you can use a product that has to be sprayed or dusted on the plants — you can't do it on a windy day because you can't control the direction of the application. The wind can take your insecticide over into your neighbor's garden; so you'll both fail to correct your own pest problem, and you'll make your neighbor mad. As the one who's using the pesticide, you are responsible for it.

    You'll also defeat your own purpose by using an insecticide if rain is expected within 12 to 24 hours. The insecticide must dry on the plant in order to be effective. Whether you use a spray or a dust, make sure that you reach all parts of the plants—you're aiming for a light covering on both the tops and the undersides of all the leaves. Don't give the pests a place to hide; proper coverage is essential if the insecticide is to do its job.

    The products we suggest are commonly used in the home vegetable garden as we write this. But before you go out to buy one, check with your local Cooperative Extension Service to make sure that these recommendations are still current.

    If you do decide to use a pesticide to control insects in your vegetable garden, here are some important points to remember:

    • Readthewholelabel;observealltheprecautions and follow all the directions exactly.

    • Check the time period that must elapse between application of the insecticide and harvesting the plant, and observe it strictly. Note all restrictions carefully — often products must be applied at a certain stage in the plant's development.

    • Wear rubber gloves while handling insecticide concentrates; don't smoke while you're handling them, and take care not to breathe the spray or dust.

    • Sprays usually have to be mixed before each use. Follow the directions, and use only the exact proportions indicated on the label. If it's not used exactly as indicated, an insecticide may be harmful to people, animals, or plants.
    •Use equipment that you keep specifically for use with insecticides. Don't use equipment that has been used for herbicides.
    Do not apply an insecticide near fish ponds, dug wells, or cisterns; do not leave puddles of pesticides on solid surfaces.
    •Use a spray or dust-type insecticide only when the air is still. Wind will carry the product away from your garden and, possibly, be a nuisance to someone else. Don't spray or dust within 12 to 24 hours of an expected rain — the insecticide must dry on the plants to be effective; rain will wash it off.
    • After using an insecticide, wash your clothes and all exposed parts of the body thoroughly with soap and water.
    • Store unused material (undiluted) in its original container out of the reach of children, irresponsible adults, or animals — preferably in a locked cabinet or storage area.
    • Dispose of the empty container carefully. Do not leave it where children or animals can get to it or where it might be recycled for another use. 
    • Wash all treated vegetables carefully before eating them. 
     
     
    NONCHEMICAL CONTROLS; ORGANIC ALTERNATIVES 
     
    It's not always necessary to use a chemical insecticide in your vegetable garden even if you have no particular personal objection to its use. In some cases organic controls can give acceptable results if you don't mind putting in a little more labor for a little less reward at harvesting time. And if you're an organic gardener, there are a few things you should know about helping your vegetables survive attacks by pests. 
     
    Planting problem-free vegetables

    First of all, you can take the simple precaution of planting only varieties that are not susceptible to major pest problems. There are a lot of vegetables that pests usually don't attack, or don't attack in large enough numbers to cause you any real grief or require the use of nonorganic methods of control. All these are fairly problem-free vegetables: artichokes, asparagus, beets, carrots, celeriac, celery, chard, chicory, cucumbers, dandelion, horseradish, Jerusalem artichokes, leeks, okra, onions, parsnips, peas, radishes, rhubarb, salsify, soybeans, spinach, turnips, and almost all the herbs.

    Some vegetables are almost always attacked by caterpillars that can be controlled by Bacillus thuringiensis, an organic product that is harmless to humans and animals. These include all the cabbage family plants — broccoli, Brussels sprouts,cabbage, cauliflower, collards, kale, and kohlrabi. The other insects that commonly attack the cabbage family plants can also usually be controlled by natural and physical methods.

    Some vegetables are almost always attacked by large numbers of insects that cannot be controlled by natural or physical methods. This is not to say that you can't grow these crops without using pesticides; you can, but usually your yield will be low. These vegetables include most of the beans, Chinese cabbage, sweet corn, eggplant, lettuce, mustard. peppers, potatoes, pumpkins, rutabagas, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and watermelons. Squash are not included in any of these categories, because although the squash vine borer — their main enerpy—cannot be effectively controlled without using a pesticide, most squash are prolific enough to give you an acceptable crop even If you do lose some to bugs. 
     
      view all
    Because research is constantly being done to determine the safety of insecticides and improve their effectiveness, it's difficult to give long-term recommendations about their use. Basic rules, however, always apply: Read the directions and precautions on the label and follow them meticulously, and never make the solution
    stronger than the label says because you think it'll work better that way. If the product would be more effective in a stronger solution the label would say so.

    You need to use common sense when working with an insecticide. If there are just a few, visible insects on your plants, it may be a lot easier to remove them by hand than to go through the full routine of applying a chemical remedy. Also, weather conditions limit when you can use a product that has to be sprayed or dusted on the plants — you can't do it on a windy day because you can't control the direction of the application. The wind can take your insecticide over into your neighbor's garden; so you'll both fail to correct your own pest problem, and you'll make your neighbor mad. As the one who's using the pesticide, you are responsible for it.

    You'll also defeat your own purpose by using an insecticide if rain is expected within 12 to 24 hours. The insecticide must dry on the plant in order to be effective. Whether you use a spray or a dust, make sure that you reach all parts of the plants—you're aiming for a light covering on both the tops and the undersides of all the leaves. Don't give the pests a place to hide; proper coverage is essential if the insecticide is to do its job.

    The products we suggest are commonly used in the home vegetable garden as we write this. But before you go out to buy one, check with your local Cooperative Extension Service to make sure that these recommendations are still current.

    If you do decide to use a pesticide to control insects in your vegetable garden, here are some important points to remember:

    • Readthewholelabel;observealltheprecautions and follow all the directions exactly.

    • Check the time period that must elapse between application of the insecticide and harvesting the plant, and observe it strictly. Note all restrictions carefully — often products must be applied at a certain stage in the plant's development.

    • Wear rubber gloves while handling insecticide concentrates; don't smoke while you're handling them, and take care not to breathe the spray or dust.

    • Sprays usually have to be mixed before each use. Follow the directions, and use only the exact proportions indicated on the label. If it's not used exactly as indicated, an insecticide may be harmful to people, animals, or plants.
    •Use equipment that you keep specifically for use with insecticides. Don't use equipment that has been used for herbicides.
    Do not apply an insecticide near fish ponds, dug wells, or cisterns; do not leave puddles of pesticides on solid surfaces.
    •Use a spray or dust-type insecticide only when the air is still. Wind will carry the product away from your garden and, possibly, be a nuisance to someone else. Don't spray or dust within 12 to 24 hours of an expected rain — the insecticide must dry on the plants to be effective; rain will wash it off.
    • After using an insecticide, wash your clothes and all exposed parts of the body thoroughly with soap and water.
    • Store unused material (undiluted) in its original container out of the reach of children, irresponsible adults, or animals — preferably in a locked cabinet or storage area.
    • Dispose of the empty container carefully. Do not leave it where children or animals can get to it or where it might be recycled for another use. 
    • Wash all treated vegetables carefully before eating them. 
     
     
    NONCHEMICAL CONTROLS; ORGANIC ALTERNATIVES 
     
    It's not always necessary to use a chemical insecticide in your vegetable garden even if you have no particular personal objection to its use. In some cases organic controls can give acceptable results if you don't mind putting in a little more labor for a little less reward at harvesting time. And if you're an organic gardener, there are a few things you should know about helping your vegetables survive attacks by pests. 
     
    Planting problem-free vegetables

    First of all, you can take the simple precaution of planting only varieties that are not susceptible to major pest problems. There are a lot of vegetables that pests usually don't attack, or don't attack in large enough numbers to cause you any real grief or require the use of nonorganic methods of control. All these are fairly problem-free vegetables: artichokes, asparagus, beets, carrots, celeriac, celery, chard, chicory, cucumbers, dandelion, horseradish, Jerusalem artichokes, leeks, okra, onions, parsnips, peas, radishes, rhubarb, salsify, soybeans, spinach, turnips, and almost all the herbs.

    Some vegetables are almost always attacked by caterpillars that can be controlled by Bacillus thuringiensis, an organic product that is harmless to humans and animals. These include all the cabbage family plants — broccoli, Brussels sprouts,cabbage, cauliflower, collards, kale, and kohlrabi. The other insects that commonly attack the cabbage family plants can also usually be controlled by natural and physical methods.

    Some vegetables are almost always attacked by large numbers of insects that cannot be controlled by natural or physical methods. This is not to say that you can't grow these crops without using pesticides; you can, but usually your yield will be low. These vegetables include most of the beans, Chinese cabbage, sweet corn, eggplant, lettuce, mustard. peppers, potatoes, pumpkins, rutabagas, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and watermelons. Squash are not included in any of these categories, because although the squash vine borer — their main enerpy—cannot be effectively controlled without using a pesticide, most squash are prolific enough to give you an acceptable crop even If you do lose some to bugs. 
     
     
    230
    Views

    we are purchasing lobster from Argentina,if Argentina lobster fishing companies ,please contact me.

    Buyer QuotesIves Published the article • 0 comments • 230 views • 2017-10-30 16:59 • came from similar tags

    We are looking for  Argentina lobster suppliers,if Argentina lobster fishing companies ,please contact me.
    We are looking for  Argentina lobster suppliers,if Argentina lobster fishing companies ,please contact me.
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    How One Man Farms the Las Vegas Desert

    ExperienceJustin Rhodes Published the article • 0 comments • 139 views • 2017-10-16 18:55 • came from similar tags

     

     
     
     
    subtitle:


    thanks Roman so much for showing us this I appreciate your dafuq defiance I appreciate your strength growing in the urban situation growing in the desert they good job buddy [Music] Sin City Austin City with the Sin City farmer we are in Las Vegas where all the lights buddy yeah they're that way okay I like your attitude man I like this Vegas strong attitude they appreciate that spirit yes absolutely you know we definitely care about the victims and their families and we want to give first-hand look at our pride for our you know city here and yes our love for everybody I'm Roman Garre with Sin City farms I'm living kind of for more sustainable type lifestyle how mentioned this while we walk around to the backyard garden five inches of rain here this is a desert if you don't think we're a but just listen here those planes we can't stop for it yeah I can't stop for it there's King tourism hopefully that tourism keeps going we need a yes keep those playing fine whoa oh my gosh man look at this backyard [Applause] [Music] [Applause] are you for real five inches of rain how hot is it right now - it's in the high 80s and it's October what night yeah I'm still struggling to put my fall crop in okay show us what's going on buddy give us the tour so this is my first bed I have 12 of my beds which is on the Curtis Stone my name is Curtis Stone I'm an urban farmer I run an operation called green city acres in Kelowna BC Canada so when you say Curtis Stone type bed you're talking about 30 inches 30 inches but I've okay this is actually no chill okay I went with a no-till method but but thirty inches wide by 25 foot long so tell me how do you prepare these garden beds if you're not telling yes so the natural soil underneath I use a digging fork and well I had to get a lot of this crust out of here this was all rock this whole backyard 100% this rock with no plastic liner underneath Wow so that rock right there right there that was the backyard did you inherit it did you grow those in those pots would you buy them like that no I I put those in the pots I had some throughout here this is what used to be a tomato bed and I put it to the tomatoes just okay what's your source of water here and I'm not saying it well I'm using overhead over there with my timers so it's from the city water okay but there's filters on you see the white okay but yeah this water out here is pretty pretty dry coronated bad so you know filters are necessary even if I do any pot watering and I'll let it sit for at least an hour maybe two before I use it just to get rid of that chlorine so I'm taking it you have to use the shade cloth the first since more sensitive plants like this and this kind of climate exactly it's specially my lettuce it just does way better and you know I had to keep the lettuce going throughout the summer for the market so okay it worked out while you in the market yeah downtown Farmers Market oh you do the end of time part-time full-time right now it was just like you know it's a test plot for now but I definitely wanted to try all the markets and and even a local restaurant veggie nation okay selling to them as well so well so you really are doing the Curtis Stone method like you're you're gonna make a career out of this yes okay good plan good for you buddy farming in an urban setting is kind of more of a test right now I wanted to start small not get have overwhelmed on too much land but I definitely have plans in the future to get a lot more acreage and do this more of a larger production okay now is that lettuce bitter no you got to prove to me no okay you're going to prove it all right this is okay hard to believe that lettuce growing and this kind of temperature isn't any better Wow good job buddy no better huh good job it's nice here nice good job buddy Curtis Stone would be proud hope so those are feet greens right there they do well actually exposed in the sunlight but but I have some underneath the shade clocked to keep you know production going and there they just grow so fast so I'm not harvesting any of the beets I'm just using the greens so that works out well cool and the amaranth does really well too but starting to go it's uh it's mainly really really heat of the summer so that's starting to go so I'll start to put some other stuff in there so I'm starting some of my fall crops you know like I said I'm doing a little small little patch but this is some of my cilantro we done over here I kind of wanted to show you this little patch over here alright and over here we've got what I call a little like permaculture patch that I it was an experiment is an experiment so I threw down mustard in here with this without any preparation zero Wow yeah zero preparation I did throw a little bit right here but that was zero preparation there you can see some cilantro in here I've got some chard growing I even threw peas down in here so you know it's just a little test that I wanted to see what would happen and so far so good mr. ball crying here the family yes cool so I had like four palm trees throughout the yard before I started this I had to pull them all out and I was thinking like gosh I could use those for mulch and to keep my shoes from getting mud on them okay worked out well okay one more section yes so these are some of my root crops here I've got some radish growing here that I just seated about two weeks ago so they're starting to come up I'm kind of keeping an eye on them have to babysit them for any bug pressure what would you do if you did end up with some bug pressure on these well I mean I'd probably just let them go because it doesn't take long for the back rod is to completely decimate I mean literally overnight they're they're gone so I just let them go and then I'll just turn them and okay plant something else oh by watching it close means yeah I mean replant amazing kind of just turn dry they look dry and and then you'll just turn into nothing after a while as far as the challenges I the heat is definitely going to be one of them but you know you can do it with the proper you know like I said like I do have the shade cloth you know so you can do this and of course you will have some bug pressure like I do have bug pressure I think everybody is gonna have that but you can still grow and just prevail from what those blood pressures are and see what does well tell us about your watermelon it's not huge it's got a huge success there it did well but now it's got bug pressure though okay so that's the squash bug from I had some zucchini going in this middle row over here and I'm sure they just migrated over here and I took them out but I mean they're still flowering as you can see do you ever harvest any of them absolutely even the seeds the car that was ready I think they're over okay well you want to eat one no they're bad there that over it yeah I think they're like really really over it okay let's gamble you were in Vegas man let's the gamble you're not gonna sell them or anything that's true there you go you got a nice yes every gardeners gotta have a knife in his pocket what do you think I'm thinking uh nope no not ready and it kind of looked like the okay the tendril was dried which is usually the tell-tale sign is that everything then Roman now of our spinach was which does it does really well out here in the desert so hey look here he gave us lunch and dinner I get fresh sound go with my yummy salad dressing from there you guys been chillin over here in the shade it's so hot what's your name Marcy what are you all about Marcy I'm all about some city farm I love it so glad you guys are here to come see us exciting beautiful day that loud airplanes we've been talking about it just shows the economy is really good still here in Vegas people are still coming to Vegas that's yeah we want Vegas strong keep on coming to Vegas y'all what you got going on here roaming just because you're in the urban situation doesn't mean you can't have a tractor [Music] oh ma look who's here look who follow this this way on his way to home what was your name again Roman Roman and Marcy Marcy nice to meet you I go by boots and ginger my wife now this is something when Justin told me you farmers ride downtown Las Vegas I'd say this is downtown Las Vegas yeah yeah the strip is just a hop and a jump there oh this is great that's great you're doing this here it'd probably be it probably be catching someone else will want to do it we're trying to get some points for me and coming over I do tours already and getting back to earth a little bit that's this that's what it's all about I definitely was up for the challenge to try and farm in the desert and I wanted to achieve something that other people are normally intimidated to do and I want them to learn from what I'm doing so they can grow out here and a lot of this you know a lot of the vegetables that are brought in here are from California they're from Arizona Utah so there's zero agriculture going on here and we need more and we want to encourage more people to grow their own [Applause] [Music] Brembo brats there [Music] okay well hey pop what hello again yeah two times in two years you're our roadie now I guess right you're following us hey we got our first roadie okay Roman it's been a blast I'm gonna tell folks I'm gonna encourage folks to follow you this is an amazing guy doing amazing things too terribly difficult things urban farming in the desert if you can do it anybody can do it there are no excuses follow him and you send city farming sensitive farming on YouTube YouTube and I'll link it there Instagram since it again Inger Graham thank you thank you Justin guy yes thank you I don't say anything good no it's gonna be music playing [Music] brace yourself there you go little higher there you go up slip it down to the left there you go it's okay if there's a little bit of light there there you go so you're gonna do better yeah what are you working on living near Lake pass okay we working on mr. brown [Music] view all
     


     
     
     
    subtitle:


    thanks Roman so much for showing us this I appreciate your dafuq defiance I appreciate your strength growing in the urban situation growing in the desert they good job buddy [Music] Sin City Austin City with the Sin City farmer we are in Las Vegas where all the lights buddy yeah they're that way okay I like your attitude man I like this Vegas strong attitude they appreciate that spirit yes absolutely you know we definitely care about the victims and their families and we want to give first-hand look at our pride for our you know city here and yes our love for everybody I'm Roman Garre with Sin City farms I'm living kind of for more sustainable type lifestyle how mentioned this while we walk around to the backyard garden five inches of rain here this is a desert if you don't think we're a but just listen here those planes we can't stop for it yeah I can't stop for it there's King tourism hopefully that tourism keeps going we need a yes keep those playing fine whoa oh my gosh man look at this backyard [Applause] [Music] [Applause] are you for real five inches of rain how hot is it right now - it's in the high 80s and it's October what night yeah I'm still struggling to put my fall crop in okay show us what's going on buddy give us the tour so this is my first bed I have 12 of my beds which is on the Curtis Stone my name is Curtis Stone I'm an urban farmer I run an operation called green city acres in Kelowna BC Canada so when you say Curtis Stone type bed you're talking about 30 inches 30 inches but I've okay this is actually no chill okay I went with a no-till method but but thirty inches wide by 25 foot long so tell me how do you prepare these garden beds if you're not telling yes so the natural soil underneath I use a digging fork and well I had to get a lot of this crust out of here this was all rock this whole backyard 100% this rock with no plastic liner underneath Wow so that rock right there right there that was the backyard did you inherit it did you grow those in those pots would you buy them like that no I I put those in the pots I had some throughout here this is what used to be a tomato bed and I put it to the tomatoes just okay what's your source of water here and I'm not saying it well I'm using overhead over there with my timers so it's from the city water okay but there's filters on you see the white okay but yeah this water out here is pretty pretty dry coronated bad so you know filters are necessary even if I do any pot watering and I'll let it sit for at least an hour maybe two before I use it just to get rid of that chlorine so I'm taking it you have to use the shade cloth the first since more sensitive plants like this and this kind of climate exactly it's specially my lettuce it just does way better and you know I had to keep the lettuce going throughout the summer for the market so okay it worked out while you in the market yeah downtown Farmers Market oh you do the end of time part-time full-time right now it was just like you know it's a test plot for now but I definitely wanted to try all the markets and and even a local restaurant veggie nation okay selling to them as well so well so you really are doing the Curtis Stone method like you're you're gonna make a career out of this yes okay good plan good for you buddy farming in an urban setting is kind of more of a test right now I wanted to start small not get have overwhelmed on too much land but I definitely have plans in the future to get a lot more acreage and do this more of a larger production okay now is that lettuce bitter no you got to prove to me no okay you're going to prove it all right this is okay hard to believe that lettuce growing and this kind of temperature isn't any better Wow good job buddy no better huh good job it's nice here nice good job buddy Curtis Stone would be proud hope so those are feet greens right there they do well actually exposed in the sunlight but but I have some underneath the shade clocked to keep you know production going and there they just grow so fast so I'm not harvesting any of the beets I'm just using the greens so that works out well cool and the amaranth does really well too but starting to go it's uh it's mainly really really heat of the summer so that's starting to go so I'll start to put some other stuff in there so I'm starting some of my fall crops you know like I said I'm doing a little small little patch but this is some of my cilantro we done over here I kind of wanted to show you this little patch over here alright and over here we've got what I call a little like permaculture patch that I it was an experiment is an experiment so I threw down mustard in here with this without any preparation zero Wow yeah zero preparation I did throw a little bit right here but that was zero preparation there you can see some cilantro in here I've got some chard growing I even threw peas down in here so you know it's just a little test that I wanted to see what would happen and so far so good mr. ball crying here the family yes cool so I had like four palm trees throughout the yard before I started this I had to pull them all out and I was thinking like gosh I could use those for mulch and to keep my shoes from getting mud on them okay worked out well okay one more section yes so these are some of my root crops here I've got some radish growing here that I just seated about two weeks ago so they're starting to come up I'm kind of keeping an eye on them have to babysit them for any bug pressure what would you do if you did end up with some bug pressure on these well I mean I'd probably just let them go because it doesn't take long for the back rod is to completely decimate I mean literally overnight they're they're gone so I just let them go and then I'll just turn them and okay plant something else oh by watching it close means yeah I mean replant amazing kind of just turn dry they look dry and and then you'll just turn into nothing after a while as far as the challenges I the heat is definitely going to be one of them but you know you can do it with the proper you know like I said like I do have the shade cloth you know so you can do this and of course you will have some bug pressure like I do have bug pressure I think everybody is gonna have that but you can still grow and just prevail from what those blood pressures are and see what does well tell us about your watermelon it's not huge it's got a huge success there it did well but now it's got bug pressure though okay so that's the squash bug from I had some zucchini going in this middle row over here and I'm sure they just migrated over here and I took them out but I mean they're still flowering as you can see do you ever harvest any of them absolutely even the seeds the car that was ready I think they're over okay well you want to eat one no they're bad there that over it yeah I think they're like really really over it okay let's gamble you were in Vegas man let's the gamble you're not gonna sell them or anything that's true there you go you got a nice yes every gardeners gotta have a knife in his pocket what do you think I'm thinking uh nope no not ready and it kind of looked like the okay the tendril was dried which is usually the tell-tale sign is that everything then Roman now of our spinach was which does it does really well out here in the desert so hey look here he gave us lunch and dinner I get fresh sound go with my yummy salad dressing from there you guys been chillin over here in the shade it's so hot what's your name Marcy what are you all about Marcy I'm all about some city farm I love it so glad you guys are here to come see us exciting beautiful day that loud airplanes we've been talking about it just shows the economy is really good still here in Vegas people are still coming to Vegas that's yeah we want Vegas strong keep on coming to Vegas y'all what you got going on here roaming just because you're in the urban situation doesn't mean you can't have a tractor [Music] oh ma look who's here look who follow this this way on his way to home what was your name again Roman Roman and Marcy Marcy nice to meet you I go by boots and ginger my wife now this is something when Justin told me you farmers ride downtown Las Vegas I'd say this is downtown Las Vegas yeah yeah the strip is just a hop and a jump there oh this is great that's great you're doing this here it'd probably be it probably be catching someone else will want to do it we're trying to get some points for me and coming over I do tours already and getting back to earth a little bit that's this that's what it's all about I definitely was up for the challenge to try and farm in the desert and I wanted to achieve something that other people are normally intimidated to do and I want them to learn from what I'm doing so they can grow out here and a lot of this you know a lot of the vegetables that are brought in here are from California they're from Arizona Utah so there's zero agriculture going on here and we need more and we want to encourage more people to grow their own [Applause] [Music] Brembo brats there [Music] okay well hey pop what hello again yeah two times in two years you're our roadie now I guess right you're following us hey we got our first roadie okay Roman it's been a blast I'm gonna tell folks I'm gonna encourage folks to follow you this is an amazing guy doing amazing things too terribly difficult things urban farming in the desert if you can do it anybody can do it there are no excuses follow him and you send city farming sensitive farming on YouTube YouTube and I'll link it there Instagram since it again Inger Graham thank you thank you Justin guy yes thank you I don't say anything good no it's gonna be music playing [Music] brace yourself there you go little higher there you go up slip it down to the left there you go it's okay if there's a little bit of light there there you go so you're gonna do better yeah what are you working on living near Lake pass okay we working on mr. brown [Music]