How to detect the quality of soil, such as fertility?

How do you guys test soil quality? and what indicators need to be inspected ( such as fertility, water holding capacity, air permeability, etc. )? Do you need expensive testing instruments to analyze chemical components?  

In addition, if the instrument is poor, lack of conditions, how to see whether a piece of soil fertility, soil nutrition status, soil pollution and so on, there is no easy way to do?
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